JAOMAD Glossary C:
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Intro
C—In thermometry, degrees centigrade (scientific notation, degrees Celsius); also: Thermocouple type for Tungsten 5% Rhenium vs. Tungsten 26% Rhenium; also: formerly meant "Conductivity"(electrical) when used in first alpha character position of ISA instrument function tag, still means "Control" if in succeeding position [see ANSI/ISA S5.1-1984 (R1992)]; also: full name of general-purpose programming language designed for UNIX® operating system (and successor of language named B), known for compactness, memory conservation, and power, designed to be compiled using a relatively straightforward compiler, to provide low-level access to memory, to provide language constructs that map efficiently to machine instructions, and to require minimal run-time support, therefore useful for many applications that had formerly been coded in assembly language and designed to encourage cross-platform programming; one of the most widely used programming languages of all time; also: symbol for patchboard or matrix board connection; also: c(lowercase) in math is abbreviation "centi-" for 10-2 (=0.01).
C+, C++— Statically typed, free-form, multi-paradigm, compiled, general-purpose programming language; regarded as an intermediate-level language, as it comprises a combination of both high-level and low-level language features; developed by Bjarne Stroustrup starting in 1979 at Bell Labs as an enhancement to the C language to provide object-oriented features (objects, services, data abstraction, inheritance, sets); originally named C with Classes, the language was later renamed C++ in 1983.
C#—(pronounced see sharp) is a multi-paradigm programming language encompassing strong typing, imperative, declarative, functional, generic, object-oriented (class-based), and component-oriented programming disciplines; developed by Microsoft within its .NET initiative and later approved as a standard by ECMA (ECMA-334) and ISO (ISO/IEC 23270); is one of the programming languages designed for the Common Language Infrastructure intended to be a simple, modern, general-purpose, object-oriented programming language.
C/J—Cold Junction, the reference junction of thermocouple, see definition.
C/S—Client /Server communication model; see definition.
C2C—Consumer-to-consumer; type of e-commerce approach using electronic interaction between consumers (generally to do business), e.g. sale of second hand goods.
CAAA—Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 in U.S. which expand EPA enforcement powers and place restrictions on air toxins, ozone-depleting chemicals, stationary and mobile emissions sources, and substances implicated in global warming and acid rain formation.
CAA—Clean Air Act; U.S. federal law calling for air pollutant emissions standards for motor vehicles and stationary sources first passed in 1970, reauthorized in 1977 & 1990.
Cable—Assembly of conductors that has some degree of flexibility; conductors are insulated from each other and enclosed in common sheath; most commonly used for data highway systems are coaxial and twinaxial (shielded twisted pair), but fiber optic and multiconductor are also available.
Cache Memory—High speed, buffer type memory filled at medium speed from main memory and temporarily stored locally so that information can be retrieved quickly by some application(s) to improve throughput.
CACSD—Computer Aided Control System Design; package which couples tremendous numerical capabilities with graphical analysis techniques of desktop computers to produce complete, easy-to-use computer software for designing and simulating control systems.
CAD—Computer Aided Design, use of high resolution graphics in wide range of design activities, allowing quick evaluation and modification; also: Computer Aided Drafting.
CADD—Computer Aided Drafting and Design.
CADET—Can't Add Doesn't Even Try; name given to first (non-arithmetic) PLCs in 1969 by Richard E. Morley and coworkers at Modicon®. J
CAE—Computer Aided Engineering, analysis of design for basic error checking, or to optimize manufacturability, also: Common Applications Environment.
CAF—Cathotic Annodic Filaments.
CAGR—Compound Annual Growth Rate.
CAI—Computer Assisted Instruction.
CAID—Computer Aided Industrial Design.
Ca—In context of intrinsic safety, maximum allowed capacitance from barrier protecting a hazardous area in an intrinsically safe installation; see Intrinsically Safe.
CAL—CAN Application Layer; see CAN.
CAL—Computer Augmented Learning; also: CAN Application Layer; Controller Area Network which is used as a base for various (initially proprietary) control digital communication systems.
Calibration Cycle—Calibration of device with increasing signal, and decreasing signal (both upscale and downscale directions).
Calibration—Test during which known process values are applied to device or system and corresponding output readings are recorded under specified conditions to determine correlation to actual values.
CALM—Collaborative Asset Lifecycle Management; see definition.
Calorie—Quantity of thermal energy required to raise one gram of water 1°C at 15°C.
CALS—Computer aided Acquisition and Logistic Support standard.
CAM—Computer Aided Manufacturing, the use of computer technology to generate data to control part or all of manufacturing process; also: Content Addressable Memory; also: Common Access Method.
CAMAC—Computer Automated Measurement And Control; instrumentation interface standard developed in 1970s by users European nuclear physics community which was promoted for industrial process control.
Camera Tube—Device contained in television camera that acts as optical-electrical transducer to convert optical image of scene to be transmitted as electrical video signals; two basic types are image orthicon and vidicon tubes from which many others have been developed.
Campaign—Limited run of product through process; can last from days to months in duration, typically in chemical industry; control strategy and physical process changes may accompany campaign.
CAN—Controller Area Network; developed by Intel® and Robert Bosch Gmbh for real-time automotive industry needs; primarily European, it provides data link for J1939 used with off-road construction, agricultural, and other vehicles; often used on top of EIA 485, more recently on ISO DIS 11898; Allen Bradley with 20 other companies in 1994 promoting DeviceNet™ on top of CAN; Honeywell MICROSWITCH® using SDS on top; also: CANcel, character in digital communication indicating that data preceding it is in error and should be ignored.
CANENA— (Council for Harmonization of Electrotechnical Standards of the Nations of the Americas); organization facilitating development of trinational North American Standards - UL, CSA, ANCE.
Canned Configurable Software—Computer software designed for specific function based on general principles and applied to many applications in order to achieve desired capability of computer system, that is, process control systems, spread sheets, historical data collection systems, statistical process control systems, etc.
CAP—Certified Automation Professional; see definition.
Cap Height—In typographical composition of screen displays and printing, height of capital letter measured from baseline to top.
CAPA—Corrective Action/Preventative Action; see definition.
Capabilities File—In FOUNDATION Fieldbus technology, describes the communication objects in a fieldbus device; configuration device can use Device Description (DD) Files and Capabilities Files to configure fieldbus system without having fieldbus devices online.
Capacitor Start/Capacitor Run Motor—An ac motor used for hard starting loads; features high capacitor for starting both motor and low capacitor for running the motor, startup and running windings are always energized, centrifugal switch changes connection between high and low capacitors.
Capacitor Start/Induction Run Motor—An ac motor capable of generating larger starting torques; it has capacitor dedicated to creating larger magnetic field for heavier startup requirements; This capacitor is cut out as motor reaches operating speed.
Capacitor—Component which consists of arrangement of two or more conductive surfaces separated by dielectric (insulator), designed to hold voltage for limited time; has been used as memory devices to hold values in multiplexing (hence: "hold stations").
Capacity—In computers, storage capability for quantity of information, usually given in bytes (KB, MB, GB).
CAPE—Concurrent Art to Product Environment; computer aided design tools used for (drawing) ‘concept to finished product’ efforts; also: Computer Aided Process Engineering.
CAPISCE—Computer Architecture for Production Information Systems in a Competitive Environment; project funded by ESPRIT to unite three layers of manufacturing architecture (planning, execution, & control); first effort by major CIM vendors towards seamlessly integrating information from control systems to business planning systems.
CAPP—Computer Aided Process Planning; data management framework designed to assist functions of process planning.
Caps—In typographical composition of screen displays and printing, capital letters of type font.
Captive Screws—Screws used to attach removable panel covers on enclosures and designed to stay attached to panel cover when cover panel is removed.
CAR—Computer Aided Repair; data management framework designed to assist functions of repair.
Carpal Tunnel Syndrome—Irritation of tendon sheath and lining involving median nerve at the human wrist location, can affect typists, computer operators, and anyone who uses hand tools.
Carrier Insertion—In digital communication, media access protocol method (ISO data link layer 2) whereby station in network monitors message stream of all messages passing through it until it detects lull in traffic, whereupon it inserts its own message while buffering and later retransmitting any additional incoming messages; also known as "ring expansion" because method "expands" ring of data by one message until original message or acknowledgment by receiving station returns back to sender.
Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection—(CSMA/CD) In digital communication, media access method (ISO data link layer 2) for local area networks; IEEE 802.3-like standard by Intel®, Xerox®, and DEC® in which contention between two or more stations is resolved by detecting the simultaneous transmission and causing each to retry after waiting predetermined time, different for each station on network and usually several microseconds.
Carrier—Continuous frequency capable of being modulated or impressed with communication signal.
Carrierband—Single-channel communication technique which transmits and receives on same frequency; also: phase coherent FSK; also: group of musicians stationed on navel vessel which accommodates landing and takeoff of aircraft. J
CAS—Complex Adaptive System; in very simple terms, consists of group of independent "agents" that take in information and adjust their behavior as a result, such as with ants and termites; concept holds promise of enabling manufacturers to more effectively deal with random variables that occur unexpectedly on plant floor, throwing normal production schedules awry; see Chaos Theory.
CAS Number—Number assigned to specific Chemicals by Chemical Abstracts Service; in most cases are unique numerical identifiers, in others, this item may show “mixture” of chemicals within some product.
CASA—(Computer and Automated Systems Association [of SME]).
Cascade Control—Automatic control scheme where output of one process controller is set point input of another; sometimes used when output signal of controller provides other input parameters (ratio, bias, gain, etc.) of another.
Cascade—Method of connecting series of devices (hardware, software, or firmware) so that output of one becomes input of another.
Cascading—In communications, connection of twisted pair hubs by running twisted pair cable from one hub to another.
CASE—Common Applications Session Element, part of layer 7 for MAP 2.1; also: Computer Aided Software Engineering, use of object oriented programming and other techniques to streamline generation of programming code, as well as to access information form relational data base; also: Conformity Assessment Systems Evaluation, voluntary program for NIST to check competency of manufactures, testing groups, standards groups trade associations, or other organizations involved in quality assurance.
CASS—Calibration Accuracy Support System; also: Coarse Alignment Sub-System; also: Coding Accuracy Support System; also: Computer Assisted Search Service; also: Computer Automated Support System; also: Consolidated Automated Support System
CAT—Computer Assisted Training; also: Current Adjusting Type process control output (4-20 mA); also: Computer Aided Testing.
CATT—Controlled Avalanche Transit Time.
CATV—Community Antenna TeleVision; often referenced in relation to type of coaxial cable used for data transmission.
Cause & Effect (C&E)—Methodology, also known as a Safe Chart, that helps end users comply with many phases of process lifecycle methodology used to provide guidelines of safety requirements needed for a process.
Cavitation—Explosive effervescence caused in fluid when pressure is suddenly reduced, such as in downstream side of valves and some flowmeter designs eventually causing damage; the same process, however, results in cleaning action in ultrasonic cleaners.
CB—Certification Board; certificate issued by National Certification Board (NCB) to provide reassurance to end user that claims of product performance is verified by independent party, attesting to quality and safety of that product; differs from European CE Mark in which testing is done by manufacturer who makes that product. See also NCB.
CBC—Cipher Block Chaining; in cryptography, mode of operation that combines ciphertext of one block with plaintext of next block, eliminating need for electronic code book method.
CBC-MAC—Cipher Block Chaining-Message Authentication Code; message integrity method that uses block ciphers such as DES and AES; where each block of plaintext is encrypted with the cipher and then XOR'd with the second encrypted block, result is XOR'd with the third encrypted block and so on in series; see MAC, CBC, XOR, AES/CCMP.
CBDS—Connectionless Broadband Data Service; definition of which is emerging from the European Telecommunications Standards Institute; expected to be equivalent to and compatible with SMDS.
CBEMA—(Computer and Business Equipment Manufacturers Association).
CBGA—Ceramic Ball Grid Array.
CBL—Computer Based Learning.
CBM—Condition-Based Maintenance; see definition.
CBSA—Component-Based Solution Assembly; production plant systems that feature flexible, adaptable systems based upon reusable, re-configurable components as an effort to preserve advantages of current legacy plant systems and products, while providing improved agility through robust real-time integration and re-configuration capabilities; more than just software, components include business processes, collaboration, solutions, and services.
CBT—Computer-Based Training; Individualized instruction delivered to trainees via computer application.
CCA—Clean Compressed Air; also: Circuit Card Assembly; also: Copper Clad Aluminum (electrical conductor); also: Constant Current Amplifier; also: Cold Cranking Amps (batteries); also: Chosen-Cyphertext Attack; also: Computer Conversion Assemblies; also: Concurrent Constraint Automata (computer programming); also: Customer Controlled Access; also: Critical Characteristics Audit; also: Contamination Control Area (or Analysis); also: Copper, Chrome, Arsenic (used to treat wood; also: Contract Change Agreement; also: Current Cost Accounting; also: Component Cost Analysis; also: Compliance Certification Application; also: Certified Cost Accountant.
CCAPS—Circuit Card Assembly and Processing System.
CCD—Charged Coupled Device; charge transfer device that consists of an array of MOS capacitors designed so charges can be moved through semiconductor substrate in controlled manner (whose semiconductors are connected so that the output of one serves as the input of the next); essentially shift register, it can be used to form analog or digital serial memories, function as dynamic filter, used for imaging as in solid state camera, etc.
CCITT—(Consultive Committee for International Telephony and Telegraphy; Comité Consultatif Internationale de Télégraphie et Téléphonie); international association that sets world-wide communications standards, such as V.21, V.22, X.25, etc.; replaced by ITU-TSS (International Telegraphic Union-Telecommunications Standards Sector).
CCL—Connection Control Language; in computers linked through phone networks, file which contains list of commands modem needs to work over network to other "foreign" modems.
CCR—Concurrency, Commitment, and Recovery.
CCST—Certified Control Systems Technician; see definition.
CCT—CNMA Conformance Testing.
CD—Compact Disc, Computer Disc; for digital memory using light to detect information, popular use includes digitized music because it combines robustness with ability to be mass produced rather cheaply with very sophisticated control and detection system; size was specifically formatted by Sony® and Philips® to store Beethoven's 9th Symphony as conducted by Herbert Von Karajan with Berlin Philharmonic, resulting in standard of 72 minute capacity per disc, which stores roughly 2 KB per sector and spins at 75 sectors per second, yielding throughput of 150 KB (2K x 75) per second; also: Compatible Digital in video data handling.
CDA—Compound Document Architecture; multi-media format by Digital Equipment Corp.CDDI—Copper Distribution Data Interface; unshielded twisted pair, shielded twisted pair, dual grade twisted pair options; see FDDI.
CDAS—Collaborative Discrete Automation Systems; definition originated by ARC Advisory Group to cover bundled functionality and scope of products & services offered by traditional automation suppliers into unified solutions that target specific vertical industries which evolved from core PLC system offerings to include collaborative production management (CPM) applications, advanced control, safety systems, application-specific systems, such as packaging systems for the pharmaceutical industry, as well as a wide range of application- and industry-specific services; Multi-Functional Controller Platforms called by some Enterprise Control Systems (ECS) connecting production floor operations with business systems.
CDE—Common Desktop Environment.
CD-E—Compact Disc - Erasable; reusable CD-R.
CDF—Compressed Data Format; method of saving data to electronic memory expressly for exchanging data between computers.
CD-I—Compact Disc-Interactive (with video); powerful marriage of audio, limited motion video, digital data, and still graphics (publishing) by Philips®; provides up to 72 minutes of motion video and will support both digital audio and CD-ROM data storage formats.
CDMA - Code Division Multiple Access; in digital communication, media access protocol (data link layer) used in wireless technology which uses spread-spectrum technology to encode each channel with a pseudo-random digital sequence; less costly to implement, provides three to five times the calling capacity of GSM & TDMA; see FDMA, “rival” TDMA.
CDP—Compressor Discharge Pressure.
CDPD—Cellular Digital Packet Data; one of the emerging wireless digital communications technologies useful for true SCADA systems, which sends packets of data using existing cellular communications technology for a given region; developed as wireless extension to an IP network; while cost is still a constraining factor with CDPD, this technology has proven effective for regions without direct telephone or leased lines; CDPD modems are available on PC Cards for laptop and handheld computers; see also SCADA.
CD-R—Compact Disc - Replicator (Recordable); using glass substrate to create disc from which plastic replicas are made through injection molding process for volume copies; can be written to only once, but a feature called multisession recording, enables addition of data to a CD-ROM over time, allowing creation of backup CD-ROMs.
CDR—Critical Design Review; used to identify issues in final design release; compare: PDR.
CD-ROM XA—Compact Disk—Read Only Memory Extended Architecture; extension of the CD-ROM standard, but hybrid of that with CD-I and promoted by Sony® and Microsoft®: adds ADPCM audio to permit interleaving of sound and video to animation, with sound synchronization.
CD-ROM—Compact Disc-Read Only Memory, to expand computer memory; 4.75 inch laser encoded optical memory storage medium with the same constant linear velocity spiral format as compact audio discs and some video discs; some can store up to 663MB of data; also: Consumer Device, Rendered Obsolete in MonthsJ.
CD-RTOS—Compact Disc Real-Time Operating System.
CD-RW—Compact Disc - ReWritable; can be erased and rewritten in multiple sessions like floppy disks and hard drives; compare: CD-R, see also MultiRead.
CDTV—Commodore Dynamic Total Vision; consumer multimedia from Commodore®, which includes CD-ROM/CD audio player, Motorola 68000 processor, 1MB RAM and 10 key infrared remote control.
CE—(Conformité Européene); CE Mark must be applied to products placed on EU market; is mark of conformity indicating declaration (SdoC) by manufacturer or its representative in EU that product or system complies with European law (directives) regulating necessary level of protection with respect to safety, health, environment, and consumer protection, (such as electronic emission and electrical safety requirements) but not any guarantee of quality and does not replace agency listings such as FM, UL, CSA, or TÜV; tested by manufacturer of product; compare with CB role of NCB.
C&E—Cause & Effect; see definition.
CEA—Certified Environmental Auditor (U.S.); certified category listed by National Registry of Environmental Professionals (NREP).
CEB, CEBus—Consumer Electronics Bus; EIA draft (9/93) to integrate utilities, sensors, controls, and communications in the home; also: (Comité Electrotechnique Belge); Belgian member of IEC.
CEF—(Comité Electrotechnique Français); French member of IEC.
CEI—(Comitato Elettrotecnico Italiano); Italian member of IEC.
Cell Constant—In Conductivity measurement, ratio between conductance electrodes to area of electrode surface.
Cell Controller—Typically programmable logic controller, or interconnected cluster of them to perform operations in "cell" on manufacturing line; term is sometimes broadened to include portions of process, but with varying interpretations.
Cell—In measurement, device that produces electricity by chemical means (electrolytic, voltaic, etc.); also: in manufacturing, cluster of operations to perform single function in assembly line (such as: “drill then tap set of holes, bolt on mounting bracket, attach device”).
CEM(S)—Continuous Emission Monitoring (System).
CEN—(Comité Européen de Normalisation); objective is to harmonize national standards of member countries for common standard throughout European community; (European equivalent to ISO).
CEN/CS—(Comité Européen de Normalisation/Central Secretariat).
CEN/TC—(Comité Européen de Normalisation/Technical Committee).
CENELEC, CLC—(Comité Européen de Normalisation Electrotechnique); goals similar to CEN, but focused on electrical and electronic products; (European counterpart of IEC).
Central Processing Unit (CPU)—“Brain” part of computer which contains circuits that control and perform execution of computer instructions, now typically a microprocessor dedicated to this.
Centripetal Force—Force exerted on object moving in circular path which is exerted inward toward center of rotation (opposite the centrifugal force).
CEO—Chief Executive Officer.
CEPEL—(Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Elétrica); Brazilian certification and testing laboratory for testing equipment of different vendors to some common standard.
CERCLA—Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (also known as superfund); U.S. federal law authorizing identification and remediation of unsupervised hazardous waste sites.
Certified Automation Professional (CAP)—Qualified to be responsible for the direction, design, and deployment of systems and equipment for manufacturing and control systems; sponsored by ISA --The Instrumentation, Systems, and Automation Society.
Certified Control Systems Technician (CCST)—Qualified to calibrate, document, troubleshoot, and repair/replace instrumentation for systems that measure and control level, temperature, pressure, flow, and other process variables; sponsored by ISA --The Instrumentation, Systems, and Automation Society.
Certified Industrial Maintenance Mechanic (CIMM)—Qualified to be responsible for preventive, predictive, and corrective maintenance. They are multi-skilled individuals whose expertise is primarily mechanical in nature as opposed to instrumentation or electrical; sponsored by ISA --The Instrumentation, Systems, and Automation Society.
Certified OPC Professional (COP)—Awarded to people who have demonstrated their proficiency with OPC technology, design, architecture and installation; supported by the OPC Foundation.
Cerenkov Radiation—Light caused by radioactive decay of elements.
CESI—Italian certification and testing laboratory for testing equipment of different vendors to some common standard.
CEU—Continuing Education Units; nationally recognized method of quantifying time spent in classroom during professional development and training activities; 10 hours of instruction equals (1) CEU and equivalent to 10 Professional Development Hours (PDHs); primary purpose is to provide permanent record of educational accomplishments of individual who has completed significant non-credit educational and career enhancement experiences; awarded only for professional development and training and are not related to academic credit; administered by American Public Works Association (APWA) [www.AWPA.net].
CF—CompactFlash; high-capacity, removable digital memory storage/transfer media which is usually rigid (non-rotational).
CFA—(CompactFlash Association); independent corporation of 10 companies to help create CompactFlash standard: Apple®, Cannon®, Eastman Kodak®, Hewlett-Packard®, Matsushita®, Polaroid®, NEC®, SanDiak®, Seagate®, & Seiko Epson®.
CFATS—Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards; see definition.
CFC—ChloroFluoroCarbon, consideration in EPA (U.S.) regulations; any compound containing carbon and one or more halogens, usually fluorine, chlorine, or bromine; used as refrigerant and solvent and as propellant in aerosol sprays; those containing bromine are used in fire extinguishers; CFCs have been identified as cause of depletion of Earth's protective ozone layer.
CF cards—CompactFlash (CF) cards, see definition.
CFD—Computational Fluid Dynamics modeling software; powerful technology to solve fluid flow problems; allows user to determine fluid mechanical details of laminar, turbulent, reactive, multiphase, noni-sothermal, non-Newtonain and compressible flow systems to ensure that process, piping, valves, and vessels are all designed correctly before starting plant.
CFH—(standard) Cubic Feet per Hour
CFI—CAD Framework Initiative standard.
CFL—Compact fluorescent Lightbulb.
CFM—Cubic Feet per Minute; also: Continuous Flow Manufacturing.
CFML—ColdFusion Markup Language; see ColdFusion.
CFO—Chief Financial Officer.
CFR—Code of Federal Regulations (US).
CFNO—CFO (Chief Financial Officer) whose answer always seems to be "No" no matter how large or small the purchase request. J
CG/VDI—Computer Graphics/Virtual Device Interface.
CGA—Color Graphics Adapter (Array); video standard (for IBM® PC in 1981), offering 320 x 200 pixels with 4 colors, or 640 x 200 pixels with two colors; in text mode, up to 16 possible colors; see EGA, PGA, SVGA, UXGA, VGA, XGA; also: Continuous Gas Analyzer.
CGI Script—Common Gateway Interface Script; small program written in a language such as Perl, Tcl, C or C++ that functions as glue between HTML pages and other programs on the Web server; for example, would allow search data entered on a Web page to be sent to database management system for lookup by formatting results of that search as an HTML page and send it back to the user; resides in the server and obtains the data from the user via environment variables that the Web server makes available to it.
CGI—Computer Graphics Interface; device independent graphics language for display and printing that stemmed from Graphical Kernel System (GKS); also: Computer Generated Image; picture created in the computer; also: Common Gateway Interface, Internet web standard for methods used by servers, external programs & scripts for intercommunication.
CGM(IF)—Computer Graphics Metafile (Interchange Format); standard for archiving and transferring graphics data.
CGMP—Current Good Manufacturing Practice; regulations by FDA for finished pharmaceuticals.
CGRM—Computer Graphics Reference Model; ISO/IEC JTC1/SC24 tools for computer graphics to insure that application programs and pictures are portable.
CGS—Centimeter-Gram-Second; system of fundamental units for mass, length, time; now obsolete, replaced by MKS system from which SI units are developed.
Chain Fall—Method of manually operating remote valves by mechanically using chains & sprockets.
Challenge/response—Authentication method used to verify legitimacy of users logging onto network; upon log-on, server uses account information to send "challenge" number back to user who then enters that number into credit-card sized token card that generates a response which is sent back to server; such systems have also been implemented entirely in software without need to carry token card.
Change Control—In process validations, formal system by which qualified representatives of appropriate disciplines review proposed or actual changes that might affect validated status; intent is to determine need for action that would ensure and document that system is maintained in validated state.
Channel—In communications, specified frequency band or particular path used in reception or transmission of electrical signals; also: in data processing, route along which information may travel or be stored within computer; also: in control systems physical input/output terminations, one input or output that can be analog or discrete.
Chaos Theory—Science that deals with the underlying order of the seemingly random nature of the universe; No-one truly knows what chaos is, much less how to define it; arguably some say it is bounded, continuously unstable aperiodic fluctuations displaying sensitive dependence to initial conditions; others say there is no such thing as "Chaos Theory", except in the popular media or sources of that nature; see CAS.
Character Generation—Production of typographic images using font master data generated to screens or output devices.
Character String—Connected sequence of characters.
Characteristic Impedance—Impedance termination of an (approximately) uniform transmission line that minimizes reflections from the end of that line.
Character-oriented—Describing communications protocol or transmission procedure that carries control information encoded in fields of one or more bytes; also: someone attracted to unusual people. J
Character—Standard 8 bit unit representing symbol, letter, number, or punctuation mark -- generally, but not always means same as byte; letter, digit, or other symbol that is used as the representation of data.
Chatter—Rapid cycling ON and OFF of device, such as relay in control process, due to insufficient bandwidth in controller.
Check Box—Small square box which appears on video screen display, usually within a dialog box, which is used for selecting choice of options within some application.
Checksum—Summation of digits or bits according to an arbitrary set of rules used primarily for checking integrity of data; can detect single bit errors and some multiple bit errors.
Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards (CFATS)—Used to establish a baseline level of security for facilities considered to pose high risk to the general population in the event of a terrorist attack.
Chemical Vapor Deposition—Semiconductor fabrication process in which material is deposited on substrate by means of reactive chemicals in vapor phase, on occasion at low pressure (well below atmospheric pressure) or plasma-enhanced (in presence of plasma discharge).
CHI—Computer Human Interface; see HMI.
Chip—Small piece of single crystal of semiconductor material containing [die (unpackaged semiconductor device) cut from a silicon wafer] either single component or device, or integrated circuit incorporating semiconductor circuit elements such as resistors, diodes, transistors, and/or capacitors.
Choked Flow—Fluid flow condition through valve that, with constant upstream state, cannot be further increased by lowering downstream pressure.
Choke—Inductor used to present relatively high impedance to alternating current.
Chopper—Device that creates alternating current by periodically interrupting or reversing continuous source of direct current.
CHP—Cooling, Heating & Power system.
Chromel®—Chromium nickel alloy used in positive leg of type K and type E thermocouples; registered trademark of Hoskins Manufacturing Company.
Ci—In context of intrinsic safety, maximum unprotected capacitance permitted in a hazardous area in an intrinsically safe installation; see Intrinsically Safe.
CIAC—(Computer Incident Advisory Capability); established in 1989, this U.S. Department of Energy group provides computer security services (such as computer virus alerts to their employees and contractors.
CIE—(Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage); international standards group for color and illumination, the first to specify color in terms of human perception rather than just listing ingredients needed to make particular device produce given color; also: Computer Integrated Enterprise.
CIEE—Computer Integrated Extended Enterprise.
CIF—Control In Field; sometimes called TrDC (Truly Distributed Control), but usually considered controllers out on fieldbus within sensors and/or final elements.
CIGS—Copper Indium Gallium Di-Selenide; compound semiconductor used in more efficient solar cells.
CIM-AF—Computer Integrated Manufacturing Application Framework; framework ("protocol" is to restrictive) based upon distributed object-oriented technology to allow control computers to communicate with equipment in plant, ideally to implement Manufacturing Execution Systems (MES).
CIM—Computer Integrated Manufacturing; application of computer and communications technology to automation and integration of manufacturing processes; usually encompasses complete material value-adding chain from order entry to delivery of product; BMP model functions involved in set of six layers, colloquially termed “CIM model;” this model is based on ISO/TR 10314 -1, Industrial Automation - Shop Floor Production - Reference model for standardization and methodology to identify requirements.
CIME—Computer Integrated Manufacture and Engineering.
CIMM—Certified Industrial Maintenance Mechanic; see definition.
Cinderella project—One where the money disappears if not spent before a deadline.
CIP—Clean-In-Place, typically in food/pharmaceutical processing vessels where parts are not removable.
CIR—Committed Information Rate; in network communications, traffic measurement which is average bandwidth that is provided over given time sample; often mistaken as amount of bandwidth that carrier is guaranteeing.
Circuit Switching—Method of communications where an electrical connection between calling and called stations is established on demand for exclusive use of the circuit until connection is released; see also Message Switching and Packet Switching.
Circuit—Completed communications path through two or more points, finishing where it started; frequently passing through combination of several electrical devices and conductors that, when connected together, can perform specific function; these devices may be discrete components or combined in single integrated circuit (IC).
Circuit-level Gateway—In computer based networks, security protection system designed to prevent unauthorized access through firewall technology which applies security mechanisms when TCP or UDP connection is established, and when connection has been made, packets can flow between hosts without further checking; see Firewall Technology.
CISC—Complex Instruction Set Computing; developed by Intel® to provide greatest number of independently functioning units by using them to perform tasks in parallel so processor makes most out of each tick of clock; compare with RISC.
CIS—Contact Image Sensor; technology that allows digitalizing images using document scanner.
CJC—Cold Junction Compensation, see definition.
CJR—Cold Junction Reference, see Cold Junction.
Cladding Mode—In fiber optics, mode confined to cladding; light ray that propagates in cladding.
Cladding—In fiber optics, outer layer that surrounds fiber core and has lower index of refraction.
Clamp Time—in power lines, how fast surge protector responds to block power surge.
Clamping Voltage—Pre-defined "sustained" voltage held by clamp circuit at some desired level.
CLAN—Carrierband LAN; also Community Local Area Network; also Cordless Local Area Network; also Control Local Area Network; also Cluster Local Area Network; also Core Local Area Network; also Corporate Local Area Network; also Customer Local Area Network; also Classified Local Area Network; also Cableless Local Area Network; also Connectionless Local Area Network
Classic IBM®—Term that usually refers to original PC-XT or AT bus architecture.
Class—In Object Oriented Programming (OOP), definition of objects according to their common characteristics; describes type of object, a template for objects with similar behavior.
CLB—Configuration-Logic Block; also: Career Limiting Behavior, see CLM. J
Clearance, Barrel of Proximity—Clearance described by imaginary barrel around electrical power line termination facility measured from sides, top, bottom, front and back of terminating surface to a grounded surface or other termination facility, including studs or bolts when in place.
Clearance, Radial—Clearance required around termination facility of electrical power line measured from sides, top, and bottom of termination surface area; see Clearance, Barrel of Proximity.
Clear GIF—Small graphic image (also known as "PIXEL tags" or "beacons"), typically used in connection with cookies, that is placed on a web site or in an email message; can monitor certain user behavior, such as usage of that web site, whether user opened an email message, or whether user clicked on a URL in an email message.
Client/Server Model—Approach to computer processing where functions of application are shared between multiple computers on same network; distributes computing load among several computers on network on which each computer or process on the network is either a client or a server.
Client—One of usually several devices on computer network being supplied by another processor acting as server of data, memory, or function(s); client software requests & receives these from server software.
Clipboard—Storage area for holding data (text, bitmap, graphic object, etc.) of video-based computer system where some content from a screen window (application) is copied to be “pasted” into another application.
Clip—In video development, (as noun) piece of video footage.
CLM—Career Limiting Move; used among microserfs to describe ill-advised activity; trashing your boss while he or she is within earshot is a serious CLM. J
CLNP—ConnectionLess Network Protocol.
CLNS—ConnectionLess Network Service.
Clock—In computer intercommunications, shorthand term for source(s) of timing signals used in synchronous transmission; more generally the source(s)of timing signals sequencing electronic events.
Closed Loop Control—In process control, any system in which part of output is fed back to input to effect regulatory action, and in which controlled quantity is measured and compared with standard representing desired value or performance; any deviation from this standard is fed back into control system in such a way to reduce deviation; usually called feedback control.
Closeness in Control—Total variation from desired setpoint of system; expressed as "closeness of control is ±2°C" or system bandwidth of 4°C; also referred to as amplitude of deviation.
Cloud Computing—General term for anything that involves delivering hosted applications (services) over the Internet (or Intranet within a company), broadly divided into three categories: Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS), Platform-as-a-Service (PaaS) and Software-as-a-Service (SaaS); name was inspired by the cloud symbol that's often used to represent the Internet in flow charts and diagrams, that data is stored in "the cloud," or on remote servers accessed via the Internet; it is generally sold on demand, typically by the minute or the hour; it is elastic -- a user can have as much or as little of a service as they want at any given time; and the service is fully managed by the provider (the consumer needs nothing but a personal computer and Internet access).
Cluster—Collection of terminals or other devices at one location.
CLUT—Color Look-Up Table; used by video display station to define its color palette to use 8-bit or lower digital image file.
Clutter—Unwanted signals caused by noise (EMI, RFI); also: unwanted images on video screen, such as shapes and messages that become unrecognizable due to zooming.
CLV—Constant Linear Velocity of rotation as found with Compact Disks; formatted LV-ROM.
CM—Condition Monitoring; role of a control system to watch health of transmitters & end elements.
CM&C—Cell Monitoring & Control.
CMAC—Cerebellar Model Articulation Control; technique in neural networks.
CMC— Copper Moly Copper.
CMEX—Continuous Media Extensions to X-windows.
CMIP—Common Management Information Protocol (ISO network management standard).
CMIS—Common Management Information Services (ISO network management standard).
CML—Current Mode Logic.
CMM—Color Matching Method; scheme for determining best color approximations in color management system; also: Collaborative Manufacturing Management.
CMMS—Computer Maintenance Management System; see definition.
CMN—Common Mode Noise, see definition.
CMOS—Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor; uses very low power, less heat to dissipate.
CMR(R)—Common Mode Rejection (Ratio); (measure of) ability of device to cast off power line interference.
CMS—Cable Management System; also: Cost Management System.
CMUT—Capacitive Microfabricated Ultrasound Transducer.
CMV—Common Mode Voltage, see Common Mode Noise.
CMYK—Cyan, Magenta, Yellow, blacK; model or color space to convey color information; combining differing amounts of these subtractive secondary colors produce all the colors in color space; used by most printers, it works by starting with all light waves (white paper) and then subtracting quantities of cyan, magenta, yellow, and black wavelengths with pigments, (theoretically, maximum of CMY produce black, but inks are not pure so usually result is muddy brown, hence addition of black); compare with RGB.
CNC—Computer Numerical Control; allows control of motion in accurate and programmable manner through use of dedicated computer within numerical control unit, with capability of local data input such that machine tools are freed from need for hardwired controllers, see Numeric Control & INC.
CNEC—(Comité Nacional Español de la CEI); member of IEC.
CNMA—Communications Network for Manufacturing Applications; "sibling" of MAP in Europe which includes IEEE802.3 and X.25 in set of reference standards.
Coax—Coaxial cable; popular transmission medium which is formed from two or more coaxial cylindrical conductors insulated from each other; outermost conductor is usually grounded and encased in either wire mesh or extruded metal sheathing; frequently used for television and radio signals as well as digital signals because its design is less likely to cause or be affected by external fields; many varieties are available depending upon shielding needed and voltages/frequencies to be accommodated.
COB—Chip On Board.
COBOL—COmmon Business Oriented Language; computer language developed by the Department of Defense and fine tuned by Capt. Grace Hopper, USN; one of the most widely implemented, it is primarily known for business applications; highly structured but wordy, it is English-like and intrinsically self documenting.
COC, CoC—Chip On a Chip; 3-D cube of chips, using bare chips mounted one over the other with spacers in between; as this technology matures, it is expected that up to 100 chips can be used in one cube; also: Computer On a Chip; single chip that contains processor, RAM, ROM, clock and I/O control unit; hundreds of millions of them are used each year for a myriad of applications from automobiles to toys; also called "Microcontroller" or "MCU;" compare with SoC.
COD—Chemical Oxygen Demand; consideration in EPA (U.S.) regulations; also: Consumed Oxygen Demand.
Code Width—Smallest voltage an A/D converter can detect; fuction of resolution, gain, and range.
CODEC—COmpression/DECompression algorithm; any of several unique methods for emulating data from digital video (compression) and then redisplaying it with data substituted or assumed from the original (decompression); term originated during 1950s for digitizing voice signals for transmission over analog telephone lines and trunks using PCM; disk drive industry uses similar term ENDEC.
CODIL—COntrol DIagram Language; process oriented language and system offered by (former) Leeds and Northrup Company.
Coefficient—Constant which is to be multiplied by variable; in digital signal processing (DSP), values of coefficients in filter determine band pass band and stop band characteristics.
COFF—Common Object File Format; file format within UNIX®.
COG—Chemical,Oil, & Gas (marketplace).
COIN—COS OSI Information Network; allows co-existence of OSI and TCP/IP protocols.
Cold Backup—Backing up database that is not in active use as in controller which turned off until needed; compare Hot Backup, Warm Backup.
Cold Junction (C/J)—Reference junction of thermocouple which is held at stable, known temperature, allowing a comparison with measured junction to determine that unknown temperature (Hot Junction).
Cold Junction Compensation (CJC)—Referencing of thermocouple voltage outputs to ambient temperature in Thermocouple measuring circuit.
ColdFusion—In computer programming, application development tool from Allaire Corporation, for writing Web pages that interact with databases; instead of writing tedious CGI and Perl scripts, operations are coded in the ColdFusion Markup Language (CFML) which uses HTML-like tags embedded in the Web pages; ColdFusion engine, interfaces with a Windows-based Web server, interprets the codes, accesses the database and delivers the results as HTML pages for the Web browser.
Collaborative Asset Lifecycle Management (CALM)—Comprehensive vision for capital asset management that addresses all classes of capital assets, all lifecycle stages, and all stakeholder needs. CALM exploits recognized Best Practices in capital asset management.
Collaborative Production Management (CPM)—Manages execution of manufacturing schedule in the plant; applications formed around information collection and management.
Collaborative Production Systems (CPS)—Defined by ARC Advisory Group as system to prevent assets from being niche islands of information, and ensure that all assets are delivering their maximum return on investment to the manufacturers and their shareholders, and eliminate manufacturers’ internal barriers that may exist between, for example, plant floor and IT personnel; see CDAS, CPAS.
Collision Domain—In digital communications, single CSMA/CD network which may consist of two or more Medium-Access Control (MAC) sublayers; MAC sublayers separated by repeater are within same collision domain; MAC sublayers separated by bridge are within different collision domains; splitting hub or repeater into separate or multiple collision domains is often incorrectly referred to as "segmentation."
Collision—In digital communications, term used when electrical signals from two network devices in CSMA/CD media access system run into each other, triggering retransmission by each, but at different times so second collision is unlikely.
Color Depth—In video development, refers to number of bits of data used to define the pixels' color (8 bits = 256 colors, 16bits = 65,535 colors, 24bits = 16.7 million colors).
Color Mapping—In digital graphics display, assigning colors to presented image, referencing color palette.
Colorimeter—Instrument for measuring color in the way the eye sees color.
COM—COMmunication, usually means serial communications port; also: Component Object Model, in computing, binary component developed by Microsoft®, used in several objects (programs) which may be combined to produce specified results; connection mechanism and protocol used to link different applications in Object Linking and Embedding (OLE) environment; allows development independent, interoperable software objects; de facto object standard by Microsoft® competing with CORBA; also: COMmon signal, usually instrument signal electrical ground separate from equipment ground (earth).
COM(M)S—Customer Oriented Manufacturing (Management) System; software package which promotes closer communication among various departments of a manufacturer and customers and suppliers; envisioned by Advanced Manufacturing Research (AMR) as linked through Manufacturing Execution System to plant controls; counterpart to ERP by GartnerGroup
Common Carrier—Private data communications utility company that furnishes communications services to general public; originated in transportation industry, expanding movement of goods and passengers to include signals.
Common Mode Noise—Voltage (common-mode voltage, or CMV) present on all conductors with respect to ground; due to number of common mode noise sources present in some industrial environments, plant floor communications systems are highly susceptible to common mode noise related problems.
Common Mode Range—Input range of an electrical device over which circuit can tolerate common mode signal.
Common Mode Rejection Ratio—Ability of instrument to reject interference from common voltage at its input terminals with relation to ground (vs. Normal Mode); usually expressed in decibels (dB).
Common Mode Signal—Mathematical average voltage, relative to device’s electrical ground, of the signal(s) from another device (differential output).
Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA)—Approach to creating open object-oriented system architectures; specifies interoperability of Object Request Brokers (ORBs); this emerging object oriented programming standard is being presented by Object Management Group (OMG); competes with de facto object standard COM by Microsoft®.
Communication Stack—Layers of protocol which provide communication between physical layer and user layer; also: in FOUNDATION Fieldbus technology, device communications software which provides encoding and decoding of User Layer messages, deterministic control of message transmission, and message transfer.
Communication—In microprocessing, transmission and reception of data among processing equipment and related peripherals.
Communications Server—Device on LAN, usually dedicated computer, that provides network users with communications programs, links telephone lines and multiplexing facilities with which to transmit data into and out of the network.
CompactFlash (CF) cards—designed with flash technology, a nonvolatile storage solution that does not require a battery to retain data indefinitely; connector similar to the PCMCIA Card connector, but with 50 pins.
CompactPCI—Connection standard for industrial grade Personal Computer Interfaces to readily allow modular architectures yet rugged enough to greatly reduce ground bounce, improve noise immunity and reduce noise emissions.
Comparator—Circuit which compares two inputs and produces output which is function of result of that comparison, such as differential amplifier.
Compatible—Can coexist with rules of recognized standard, but may not be compliant (see compliant); for example, specification-compatible device will operate on standard communication system and communicate with other devices on that system made by same vendor, will not interfere with devices made by other vendors on that same system, but will not necessarily be able to communicate with those other devices; [Webster definition: existing together in harmony].
Compensated Range—Range of values within which all tolerances specified for zero, sensitivity, etc. are applicable.
Compensating Loop—In thermal measurements using Resistance temperature Detector (RTD), the lead wire resistance compensation for this type of element where an extra length of wire is run from instrument to RTD and back to instrument, with no connection through RTD.
Compensation—Addition of specific materials, devices, or values to counteract some known error.
Compiler—Computer program that translates high-level language statements (Interpreted program) into some form (typically machine code, or some other lower level language) that can directly activate the computer hardware; compiled programs run very significantly faster than interpreted programs.
Compliant Voltage—Defined by some instrument vendors as minium voltage that must appear across transmitter for it to function properly; some others may refer to this as "lift-off voltage."
Compliant—Conforms exactly with rules of recognized standard (vs. compatible); for example, specification-compliant device will operate on standard communication system and communicate with all other devices on that system made by any other vendor who is similarly compliant; [Webster definition: submissive].
Component-Based Solution Assembly (CBSA)—plant systems that feature flexible, adaptable systems based upon reusable, re-configurable components as an effort to preserve advantages of current legacy plant systems and products, while providing improved agility through robust real-time integration and re-configuration capabilities; more than just software, components include business processes, collaboration, solutions, and services.
Component Object Model—Underlying Microsoft computer software architecture that allows applications to be readily integrated.
Component RGB Video—In video development, red, green, blue, and luminance signals are processed as separate signals (or components), thus achieving higher quality; generally found in professional grade equipment; see Composite Video.
Component Software—Object oriented computer software approach in which stand-alone objects, or components, can readily interact in “container environment” without custom program development.
Composite Link—Line or circuit connecting pair of multiplexors or concentrators; also: circuit carrying multiplexed data.
Composite Video—In video development, video signal that combines chrominance (colors red-green-blue) and luminance (brightness of black, white, and gray) information into one signal relayed on single waveform or over single wire; used by most consumer grade products.
Compound—In Object Oriented Programming (OOP), consisting of combination of elementary objects.
Compression—Any of several techniques used to reduce number of bits required to represent information in storage or transmission of digital data (saving memory or bandwidth), in which original form of the information can be reconstructed; also: called compaction; see Asymmetrical, Delta Save, JPEG, MPEG, Symmetrical.
Computer Graphics—General term identifying pictures or diagrams, as different from letters and numbers, on computer video screen or hard copy device.
Computer Integrated Manufacturing (CIM)—Application of computer and communications technology to automation and integration of manufacturing processes; usually encompasses complete material value-adding chain from order entry to delivery of product; BMP model functions involved in set of six layers, colloquially termed “CIM model;” this model is based on ISO/TR 10314 -1, Industrial Automation - Shop Floor Production - Reference model for standardization and methodology to identify requirements.
Computer Legend—Designed as instrument of torture, first computer was invented by Roger "Duffy" Billingsly, a British scientist, who in plot to overthrow Adolf Hitler, Duffy disguised himself as a German ally and offered his invention as a gift to the surly dictator. The plot worked. On April 8, 1945, Adolf became so enraged at the "Incompatible File Format" error message that he shot himself. The war ended soon after Hitler's death, and Duffy began working for IBM. J
Computer Telephony—Broad term for the many combinations of (PC) computer and telephone for new and unique applications.
Computer Viruses, Worms, & Trojan Horses—virus is unauthorized program that replicates itself, attaches itself to other programs, and spreads onto various data storage media (floppy disks, magnetic tapes, random access memory, etc.) and/or across a network; symptoms of infection include much slower computer response time, inexplicable loss of files, changed modification dates for files, increased file sizes, and total computer failure; larger systems do not generally suffer from viruses, but they do suffer from worms and Trojan Horses; worms absorb memory & slow performance much like viruses, but do not attach themselves to other programs and generally do not destroy data, software, or other system resources, whereas Trojan Horses are unauthorized programs hidden within authorized programs which also can be designed to give access to a specific “cracker;” see Cracking.
Computer(ized) Maintenance Management System (CMMS)—General classification of computer programs designed to assist in managing maintenance of process plants and other facilities; provides history and future work scheduling of assets, including tracking preventative maintenance schedules for these assets; sophisticated systems keep inventory of spare parts on-line with work orders, with inventory control, automatic purchasing, receiving, physical counting, along with providing personnel with information for appropriate decisions based on costs and operating efficiencies; see Preventative Maintenance, Predictive Maintenance, and Total Productive Maintenance concepts; see also Enterprise Asset Management (EAM).
Computer-Based Training (CBT)—Individualized instruction delivered to trainees via computer application
Computer—Device capable of solving problems or manipulating data by accepting data, performing prescribed operations (mathematical or logical) on the data, and supplying results of these operations; Initial use of the term was as job title for those women at the Philadelphia arsenal in the 1930’s who computed the gunpowder loads needed in artiliary for various projectiles at various ranges & trajectories, which was the first purpose for developing the Eniac computer, see ENIAC; although first “computing machine” is credited to Charles Babbage, see also Computer Legend.
Computerized Composition—All-inclusive term for use of computers to automatically perform functions of hyphenation, justification, and page formatting.
Computing Device—In instrumentation, device or function that performs one or more calculations or logic operations, or both, and transmits one or more resultant output signals; sometimes called Computing Relay; see Relay.
Concatenate—To link together in chain, such as macros in software program, or message frames in digital communication, or terms in mathematical equation, etc.
Concentrator—Any communication device that allows shared transmission medium to accommodate more data sources than there are channels available within that transmission medium; in twisted pair ETHERNET networks, a multiport repeater with diagnostic and administrative capabilities (often referred to as "hub" or "repeater").
Concept of Operation—User-oriented document that describes the characteristics for a proposed automated system or an information technology (IT) situation from viewpoint of an individual who will use that system; used to communicate quantitative and qualitative system characteristics to all stakeholders; initially used in the military or in government services, but becoming important in cyber security of industrial plants.
Concurrent Engineering—Structuring design process so that all concerned parties, including manufacturing, sales, and customers, are involved from beginning with intent to bring about more meaningful result more quickly.
Concurrent Processing—Simultaneous processing of more than one program.
Condensed Type—In typographical composition of screen displays and printing, slender or narrow type face.
Condition-Based Maintenance (CBM)—System using running time and wear data from temperatures, oil quality, etc., makes intelligent equipment health decisions regarding work orders, enabling maintenance the ability to predict failures (in advance) and prevent downtime, so optimum production output can be achieved.
Conditioning—Modification of signal in one form or media to match that of another, such as preparing digital output for voice grade channel transmission, or 4-20mA nonlinear transmitter signal into linear digital signal within controller.
Conductance—In Conductivity measurement, measure of ability of solution (fluid) to conduct electricity; thus it is reciprocal of resistance.
Conduction—Conveying of energy (usually electrical or heat) through or by means of conductive material.
Conduit—Protective “pipe” used for running power or communication cables between two locations, typically terminated in protective pull boxes, or pull section of equipment or enclosures; compare with Raceway.
Configurable—In instrumentation, term for device or system whose functional characteristics can be selected or rearranged through selection from libraries of algorithms, images, and "soft wiring" techniques (generally methods other than programming languages); concept generally excludes physical (hard) rewiring as means of altering the configuration.
Configurability—Any device and its software components can be configured by software tools from multiple vendors.
Configuration—Selection of hardware devices, firmware, or software programs to fit the application technology to its particular use.
Conformal Coating—Organic coating that can be placed on printed circuit boards to protect exposed electrical surfaces from extreme humidity and chemical atmosphere conditions including attack by sulfur compounds like hydrogen sulfide; typically used where it is impossible to control exposure to these elements, such as in many process plants.
Conformance Testing—Running of standard set of tests for determining whether some product meets set of standards and/or specifications; testing does not guarantee that products can inter-operate, only conform to specification.
Conformity Assessment—Method whereby inspector knows if product complies with appropriate standards, making is acceptable for installation under the electrical code being enforced (such as in context of CE mark).
Conformity—In process signal conditioning, resolution of an A/D or D/A conversion, how close the digital represents the analog curve: also: ability of product to meet set of standards and/or specifications, see Compatible & Compliance.
Conforms—Agrees fully with rules of recognized standard, is compliant; see/compare compliant vs. compatible.
Connection Head—Enclosure attached to end of thermocouple within which electrical connections are made.
Connection—In communications, connection implies transport link-level control circuit. see Association.
Connector—In FOUNDATION Fieldbus technology, used to connect wire medium to fieldbus device or to another segment of wire.
CONOPS, CONOPs, ConOps—Concept of Operation; see definition; also: Control Operations; also: Continuity Of Operations; also: Contingency Operations; also: Continuous Operations; also: Conduct of Operations.
CONS—Connection Oriented Network Service; from MAP.
Console—Part of computer used for communication between operator and/or engineer and control equipment as well as computer itself; that part of terminal providing user input and output capability.
Constant Voltage Power Supply—Power supply capable of maintaining fixed voltage across variable load resistance and over defined input voltage and frequency change; output current is automatically controlled to maintain constant the product of output current times load resistance.
Constantan—Alloy of copper (50 to 60%) and nickel that has very low temperature coefficient of resistance with comparatively high resistance, making it very suitable for precision wire-wound resistors and to form thermocouples with iron, copper, silver, etc.; used as negative lead in types E, J, and T thermocouples.
Contacts—Elements used to mechanically make or break an electrical circuit; also: people you know who can do essentially same function in business. J
Containment—In object oriented software, one object can contain another object, so messages are sent to contained object via object containing it; the latter can then override specific functions, or pass message on to contained object; containment is necessary when one object needs to change some aspect of another object.
Contention—Facility provided by the communication network, which allows multiple terminals to compete on first-come, first-served basis for smaller number of computer ports.
Context Switching Multitasking—Multiple applications can be loaded into computer, but only one in foreground is giving process time; this simplest level of multitasking is how Microsoft Windows works, that is, once an application is in the foreground, all other applications stop; compare Cooperative Multitasking and Time-Slice Multitasking.
Continuous Duty—Device able to operate continuously with no OFF or rest period.
Continuous Flow Production—Method of on-going production typical of the process industries, as compared with Batch.
Control Algorithm—In process control, mathematical representation of control action to be performed.
Control Character—Character whose occurrence in particular context starts, modifies, or stops an operation that effects recording, processing, transmission, or interpretation of data.
Control Circuit—Circuit in equipment or an electrical circuit that carries the signal which determines control action, as distinct from power used to energize the various components.
Control Diagram Language (CODIL)—Process oriented language and system offered by (former) Leeds and Northrup Company.
Control L—In video development, device control standard used in many consumer and prosumer devices; allows for rewind, play, and record commands to be triggered externally.
Control Loop—Generally all the elements driving process control, sensor, transmitter, controller, and end element (valve, drive unit, etc.), and the process itself; also: in FOUNDATION Fieldbus technology, group of Function Blocks (FBs) that execute at specified rate within fieldbus device or distributed across fieldbus network.
Control Mode—Output form or type of control action used by process controller to drive end elements (valves, SCRs, etc.) such as ON/OFF, time proportioning, PID, etc.
Control Point—Process control value at which control system is to maintain during operation.
Control Station—In instrumentation, Manual Loading Station that also provides switching between manual and automatic control modes of control loop, sometimes called Auto-Manual Station; operator interface of Distributed Control System may be regarded as Control Station; also: in communications, station on network which supervises that network control procedures such as polling, selecting, and recovery; it is also responsible for establishing order on the line in the event of contention, or any other abnormal situation, arising between any stations on that network.
Control Subsystem—Portion of DCS which directs sequence of operations, interprets coded instructions, and initiates appropriate commands to computer functions prior to execution of process actions.
Control System—System in which deliberate guidance or manipulation of various elements used to achieve prescribed value of variable(s) to cause desired result within process.
Control Systems Engineer (CSE)—Specialized Professional Engineering (PE) license recognized in the US for engineers in automation and control; requires an understanding of the science of instrumentation and the automatic control of dynamic processes with ability to apply this knowledge to the planning, design, development, operation, and evaluation of control systems to insure the safety and practical operability of such processes; includes elements of electrical, mechanical, chemical, and other branches of engineering, centered on the technologies needed for feedback and feedforward control of dynamic systems.
Control Unit—In computers, those parts that effect retrieval of instructions in proper sequence, interpretation of each instruction, and application of appropriate signals to arithmetic unit and other portions based on that interpretation.
Control Valve—Valve with known performance characteristics over the full open to full closed range, permitting accurate flow adjustment; usually not hand actuated ON-OFF valve or self-actuated check valve.
Controlled Variable (CV)— in process control, generally that portion of the process changed as result of control action (usually because of output signal from controller).
Controller Area Network (CAN)—Serial communication bus developed by Bosch for use in automotive in-vehicle communications; with added communication layers, is foundation of DeviceNet industrial automation protocol.
Controller File—Circuit card cage in which control functions of several process loops were shared by the full set of cards within it; a term more common with those distributed control systems of late 1970's through 1980's which used this style.
Controller—Device or program that operates to regulate controlled variable; it may be self-contained analog or digital instrument, or it may be equivalent of these in shared control system, as in DCS; automatic controller varies its output automatically in response to direct or indirect input of measured process variable; manual controller is manual loading station, and its output is not dependent on measured process variable, but can be varied only by manual adjustment; controller may be integral with other functional elements of control loop.
Convection—Circulatory action that occurs in fluid at non-uniform temperature due to variation of its density and action of gravity; the transfer of energy (heat) by this automatic circulation of medium (gas or liquid fluid).
Convergence—In multibeam electron tube, such as color picture tube, it is intersection of the beams at specified point, causing the appropriate colors.
Conversion Time—In instrumentation, time required to convert analog or digital into its converse.
Converter—Depending on field of use, device that: converts ac to dc or vice versa; changes frequency of signal (frequency changer); has different electrical properties at its input and output and may be used to couple dissimilar circuits (impedance converter); changes an information code (compiler); converts one type of energy to another (optical to electrical transducer, sound to electrical, etc.); in process control, instrument which changes sensor's output to standard signal is properly designated as a Transmitter, not a Converter; Converter is also referred to as Transducer, but latter term is a completely general term and its use specifically for signal conversion is not recommended.
Convolution—In digital signal processing (DSP), mathematical process, which describes operation of filters; in discrete convolution, values of corresponding samples are multiplied and added together to form new function.
Cookie—Small amount of data sent from an attained web site server to interrogating computer browser and stored on that computer's hard drive. Most browsers allow users to block receipt of cookies, but doing so may compromise that user's ability to use certain features of that site.
Cooperative Multitasking—Common to Macintosh platform, this is a step above context switching; background applications are given processor time, but only when foreground task is idle and allows it, such as while waiting for keystroke; compare Context Switching Multitasking and Time-Slice Multitasking.
COP—Certified OPC Professional; see definition.
COPANT—Comisión Panamericana des Normas Técnicas (Pan American Standards Commission).
Coprocessing—Microprocessor dedicated to only task of numeric functions very fast and accurately; works in conjunction with "normal" microprocessor, off loading it to dramatically improve performance of all tasks required of system; especially useful when using math intensive programs such as spreadsheets, and CAD functions.
Copy Preparation—Directions for and the checking of illustration details, placement of text and graphic elements in design of screen displays and page layouts.
Copy Protection—Clever method of preventing incompetent pirates from stealing software, and legitimate customers from using it. J
Copy—Any furnished material (typewritten manuscript, pictures, artwork, etc.) to be used in creation of screen displays or in the production of printing.
Copyfitting—In typographical composition of screen displays and printing, the calculation of how much space the provided copy will use in given screen or page, selecting type fonts and size, art scale and placement, etc.
CORBA—Common Object Request Broker Architecture; approach to creating open object-oriented system architectures; specifies interoperability of Object Request Brokers (ORBs); this emerging object oriented programming standard is being presented by Object Management Group (OMG); planned by 11 companies including IBM®, H-P®, Sunsoft®; competes with de facto object standard COM by Microsoft®.
Core Memory—In computers, old form of memory that emerged in the 1950s using memory cells of doughnut shaped iron magnets around each junction of wires in a grid; changing direction of current in wires cause change in polarization of ring, determining the bit to be 1 or 0; by 2000 similar effect is achieved by VRAM and by magnetic tunneling junction of MRAM; see RAM, DRAM, SRAM, MRAM, Magnetic Tunneling Junction.
Core—In fiber optics, central region of optical wave guide through which light is transmitted; typically 8-12 microns in diameter for single-mode fiber, 50-100 microns for multimode; it has index of refraction higher than that of surrounding cladding.
Coriolis Force—Result of centripetal force on mass, moving with velocity radially outward in rotating plane; phenomenon used in flow measurement.
Corrective And Preventive Action (CAPA also called corrective action / preventive action)—Concept within good manufacturing practice (GMP) that focuses on the systematic investigation of discrepancies (failures and/or deviations) in an attempt to prevent their recurrence (for corrective action) or to prevent occurrence (for preventive action). To ensure that corrective and preventive actions are effective, the systematic investigation of the failure incidence is pivotal in identifying the corrective and preventive actions to be undertaken. CAPA is part of the overall quality management system (QMS).
Corrective Maintenance—To continue to operate process or system until failure occurs, then make necessary repairs; compare: Preventative Maintenance, Predictive Maintenance.
COS—(Corporation for Open Systems).
COSE—(Common Open Software Environment); effort by the UNIX® community to unify the various versions of UNIX®.
COTS—Commercial Off-The-Shelf; in reference to hardware, firmware, and/or software which is not proprietary to one specific vendor, but rather is available from any of several vendors in functionally identical, and interchangeable form.
Counter/Timer—Circuit that counts external or clock pulses.
Coupler—In FOUNDATION Fieldbus technology, physical interface between Trunk and Spur, or Trunk and a device.
Course Wavelength Division Multiplexing (CWDM)—Optical transmission method that is used for shorter distances than dense WDM (DWDM); sometimes known as "wide WDM," CWDM transmits fewer channels and uses wider spacing between the channels for distances up to 60 km; wider spacing up to 25 nm, compared to 1.6nm and smaller for DWDM, tolerates more temperature fluctuation.
CP/M—Computer Program for Microcomputers.
CPAC—(Center for Process Analytical Chemistry).
CPAS—Collaborative Process Automation Systems; definition originated by ARC Advisory Group to cover bundled functionality and scope of products & services offered by traditional automation suppliers into unified solutions that target specific vertical industries which evolved from core DCS system offerings to include collaborative production management (CPM) applications, advanced control, safety systems, application-specific systems, such as gauging systems for the pulp and paper industry, as well as a wide range of application- and industry-specific services.
cPCI—Compact Peripheral Component Interconnect; see PCI.
CPFR—Collaborative Planning, Forecasting, & Replenishment.
CPG—Consumer Packaged Goods.
CPI—Chemical Process Industries.
CPL—Capability Performance, Lower;
CPLD—Complex Programmable Logic Device that includes a programmable interconnect between the logic blocks. See ASIC, PLD, SPLD.
CPM—Collaborative Production Management; see definition.
CPN—Collaborative Partner Network.
CPP—Characters Per Pica; in typographical composition of screen displays and printing, used in copyfitting calculations as average number of characters in specific point size and typeface which will fit in 1 pica of horizontal space.
CPS—Characters Per Second in data processing; since single character requires approximately 8 bits to represent it, baud rate can be divided by 8 to calculate cps (such as 300 baud = 37.5 cps); also: Cycles per Second, in electrical alternating current (Vac) this is now properly called Hertz; also: Collaborative Production Systems, see definition.
CPVC—Chlorinated PolyVinyl Chloride; used with chemical resistance, high temperature piping (etc.); more durable than the more economical PVC.
CPU—Capability Performance, Upper; also: Central Processing Unit; that part of computer which contains circuits that control and perform execution of computer instructions; in Personal Computers (PCs), CPU controls operation of computer system and executes arithmetic and logic functions of particular program; also: Central Propulsion Unit, the computer's engine, consists of tiny spinning wheel that's powered by running rodent which is: mouse if machine is 286, gerbil if 386, ferret if 486, ferret on speed if Pentium, Tasmanian devil with scalpel if Pentium II. J
Cracking—In computers, breaking into computers (typically through phone lines via internet) for criminal purposes; typical way for hackers--both black hat and ethical--to gain access to some organization's network is to use analyzers that can sniff or probe for passwords for networked systems; see Hacking.
Crash—in computers, see ABEND. J
CR—Carriage Return; also: CEN Report.
Craftsman® 1/2 X 24-Inch Screwdriver—Very large pry bar that inexplicably has an accurately machined screwdriver tip on the end opposite the handle. J
CRC—Cyclic Redundancy Check; see definition.
Crest Value—Peak value (of voltage, current, or any alternating signal); see Peak Value.
Critical Path Method—In MES, use of computers to determine order operations which must be executed to complete some effort in minimum time, and determine which operations have some “float” or capacity to be reprogrammed without affecting that minimum time.
CRM—Customer Relationship Management; Management; see definition.
CROM—Control Read Only Memory.
Crop—To cut off some part of an image, such as can be done in computer graphics.
Crossed Pinning—Physical configuration that allows two DTE devices or two DCE devices to communicate.
Crossover—Conductor which runs through cable and connects to differently numbered pin at each end.
Crosstalk—Interference due to cross coupling between adjacent circuits or to inter-modulation of two or more carrier channels, producing unwanted signal(s) in one circuit when signal is present in other.
Crowbar Voltage Protector—Separate circuit which monitors output of power supply and instantaneously throws short circuit (or crowbar) across output terminals of power supply whenever preset voltage limit is exceeded; SCR is often used as crowbar device.
Crowbar—Action in power supply, which effectively creates high, overload on actuating member of protective device; crowbar action may be initiated by slight increase in current or voltage.
CRP—Capacity Requirements Planning.
CRT—Cathode Ray Tube (Video Screen), which is used to display information.
CRTL—C-language Run-Time Library
Crystalloluminescence—Light produced by the crystallization of chemicals.
CSA—(Canadian Standards Association); Canadian certification laboratory for testing equipment of different vendors to some common standard.
CSE—Control Systems Engineer; see definition.
CSFE—Certified Functional Safety Expert (TÜV).
CSG—Constructive Solids Geometry.
CSI—Current source Inverter type of variable frequency drive, see VFD; also: Control Systems Integrator.
CSIA—(Control Systems Integrators Association); group formed by NEMA to address programs for control system engineer registration, ISO 9000 quality program, strategic alliances/joint ventures, business management, & business practices; affiliated with System Integrators Group within Automation Products and Systems section of Industrial Automation Division.
CSIC—Customer Specific Integrated Circuit.
CSMA/CD—Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection; media access method (ISO data link layer 2) for local area networks; IEEE 802.3-like standard by Intel®, Xerox®, and DEC® in which contention between two or more stations is resolved by detecting the simultaneous transmission and causing each to retry after waiting predetermined time, different for each station on network and usually several microseconds; sometimes called Listen While Talk (LWT).
CSN—Czech Office for Standards, Measurement and Testing.
CSP—Computer driven Set Point of process control loop; also: Chip-Scale Packaging; overall circuit package reduced to size of chip itself, where solder “bumps” on top of active surface terminals, replacing lead wires, allow mounting package in the inverted position to be soldered directly to printed circuit board.
CSR—Customer Service Representative.
CSS—Client-Server Solutions; see Client-Server.
CSSP—Control Systems Security Program within National Cyber Security Division (NCSD) of Department of Homeland Security (DHS), [USA].
CSV—Comma Separated Variable; format method of saving data to electronic memory expressly for sharing data between computers or applications; often used for transfer of columns of text and numerical data
CT—Computer Telephony; broad term for the many combinations of (PC) computer and telephone for new and unique applications; also: Current Transformer.
CTD—Cumulative Trauma Disorder(s); physiological problems that can occur in users of ergonomically poor equipment design; often in reference to, but not limited to, the broad category of problems related to repetitive wrist movements linked to extensive data entry in computers; problem is among many other occupations, highest rates are among meat packers (OSHA); accounts for 61% of all private sector occupational illnesses in 1991 according to Bureau of Labor Statistics; also called Repetitive Strain Injury (RSI).
CTE—Coefficient of Thermal Expansion of materials.
CTS—Clear To Send; modem interface control signal (typically EIA RS232/422) indicating readiness to accept data from DCE; also: Custody Transfer System; measures flow of fluids through a pipe for inventory of product to calculate value for sale; also: Carpal Tunnel Syndrome, irritation of tendon sheath and lining involving median nerve at the human wrist location, can affect typists, computer operators, and anyone who uses hand tools; also: Cubital Tunnel Syndrome, irritation of tendon sheath and lining involving median nerve at the human elbow location, can affect phone operators, drivers, or anyone who keep arms in flexed positions or constantly lean on elbows.
CUI—Common User Interface; provides access to any applications which reside on server or mainframe, regardless of any incompatibilities that exist between workstations or applications.
CUL—Canadian Underwriters Laboratory, see UL.
Current Drive Capability—Amount of electrical current a digital or analog output channel is capable of sourcing or sinking while still operating within voltage range specifications.
Current Loop—In electronic communications, method of interconnecting terminals and transmission signals; mark (binary 1) represented by current present, space (binary 0) represented by no current.
Current Proportioning—Output form of controller, which provides current proportional to amount of control required; normally 4 to 20 mA current proportioning band.
Current Sink Capability—Ability of data acquisition device to dissipate current for analog or discrete output signals.
Current Source Capability— Ability of data acquisition device to supply current for analog or discrete output signals
Current—Rate of flow of electricity, measured in Amperes (A or Amps); 1 Ampere = 1 coulomb per second.
Cursor—Tracking/selecting "locator symbol" on video screen, manipulated with keyboard, mouse, trackball, touchsreen, etc., and used to retrieve or enter data, command functions and actions.
Customer Relationship Management (CRM)—Management concept / technology-enabled strategy to convert data-driven decisions into business actions in response to, and in anticipation of, actual customer behavior; from a technology perspective, CRM represents the systems and infrastructure required to capture, analyze and share all facets and channels (e.g. internet, face-to-face, telephone) of the customer’s relationship with the enterprise; from a strategy perspective, it represents a process to measure and allocate organizational resources to those activities that have the greatest return and impact on profitable customer relationships; in other words, focusing business to meet customer’s needs rather than sell product.
CUSUM—CUmulative SUM; used in statistical process control.
Cutoff Wavelength—For single mode fiber optic cable, wavelength above which the fiber exhibits single mode operation.
Cutout Alarm—Alarm designed to not function during state of other operating condition(s) or parameter(s), often during startup, shutdown, critical stages of process, etc.
Cuts-only—In video development, editing system limited to direct edits from one clip to the next with no transitions between the scenes.
CV—Controlled Variable; in process control, generally that portion of the process changed as result of control action (usually because of output signal from controller).
Cv—Flow efficiency factor; flow rate (U.S. gallons per minute) across restriction (e.g. valves, fittings, etc.) at 1 psig pressure drop.
CVD—Chemical Vapor Deposition.
CVS—Cyclic Voltammetry Stripping.
CVT—Constant Voltage Transformer.
Cw—In context of intrinsic safety, capacitance of interconnecting wiring running through a hazardous area requiring intrinsic safety; see Intrinsically Safe.
CWA—Clean Water Act; U.S. federal law passed in 1972 and updated in 1987, regulating discharges to surface waters and publicly owned treatment works.
CWDM—Course Wavelength Division Multiplexing, see definition.
CWT—Cold Water Temperature.
Cyan—Color hue which transmits only blue and green light with no red from screen view; reflects only green and blue light and absorbs red light on paper using 4-color process inks.
Cycle Progress—Feature of timer or counter that shows progression point in time or count cycle; can be shown by digital display or pointer progressing through scale on dial.
Cycle Time—Time usually expressed in seconds for controller to complete one ON/OFF cycle.
Cyclelog—First programmable controller for discontinuous applications, made by Foxboro in 1937.
Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC)—Basic error checking mechanism for link-level data transmissions, typically bit-oriented protocols; integrity of frame is checked using polynomial algorithm based on content of frame and matched with same calculation made and sent by originating station.
CYS—Cyprus Organization for Standards and Control of Quality.
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