JAOMAD Glossary E:
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Intro
E—Symbol of ANSI thermocouple type for Chromel® vs. Constantan; also: means "Voltage" (EMF) when used in first alpha character position of ISA instrument function tag, means "Primary Element” (sensor) in succeeding position [see ANSI/ISA S5.1-1984 (R1992)]; also: Voltage Signal.
E-Business—Electronic Business; overall term for all activities, transactions, interactions, information exchange and communication related to business processes, which are using electronic media such as the internet, intranet, EDI, other computer networks, wireless transmissions, etc.; E-business takes place on marketplaces, in all sub-areas and processes of the supply chain, in the field of customer relationship management, customer care, after sales services, and so on.
E-Commerce—Electronic On-line Commerce; business environment integrating electronic transfer and automated business systems.
E-Glass—In construction of glass bulb type pH sensors, this is used for membranes of electrodes for processes where measurements are to be made in acid media; suitable for use at higher process temperatures; see G-, L-, S-Glass.
E-Learning—Learning via electronic media; also: Comprehensive set of classroom and on-the-job e-Business training modules for all management levels to build internal e-talent and promote e-Business related networking and know-how exchange.
E-mail—Electronic mail; method of transmitting text messages and files digitally over communication links, such as the phone system; sometimes used in plant floor Operator Stations to send messages to other parts of the business.
E-Procurement—In e-Purchasing, procurement using electronic media such as the internet, other computer networks, etc. e-Procurement systems have a buyer site focus.
E-Sourcing—Subset of e-procurement focusing on detection and selection of suppliers.
E-zines—Electronic magaZINES; generally found on Internet, these publications are computer accessed over some network, containing pictures, articles, sound bites, video clips, and often targeted on very focused topics; advantage is that information can be updated on line, rather than wait for later edition to be printed.
EAAUG—(European Association of AutoCAD User Groups); EC sponsored initiative to provide members access to information and services in their native languages through simple dial-up modem service.
EABI—Embedded Application Binary Interface; establishes object code standards for embedded applications of software to allow developers to easily migrate and reuse code from processor to processor.
EAI—Enterprise Integration Application.
EAM—Enterprise Asset Management, see definition.
Early Trip Contacts—Independent set of contacts in timing equipment that will transfer at a setpoint that occurs before end of timing or count cycle.
EA(P)ROM—Electrically Alterable (Programmable) Read Only Memory; memory that can be selectively altered using electrical field rather than ultraviolet (as with EPROMs); sometimes field can be controlled to be selective, without erasing all stored data (as with EPROMs).
Earth—That electrical potential which is common to earth; British term for term "ground" in United States.
EASC—Euro-Asian Interstate Council for Standardization.
EBCDIC—Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code; eight-bit character code used primarily in IBM® equipment which allows for 256 different bit patterns.
EBIT—Earnings Before Interest and Taxes; revenue less operating expenses.
EBM—Electron Beam Melting; a 3D printing technique; see Additive Manufacturing.EBR(S)—Electronic Batch Record (System).
EBU—(European Broadcasting Union); world’s largest professional association of national broadcasters, headquartered in Geneva, and working on behalf of its members in European area.
EC—(European Community); group of European countries banded together for common agricultural and economic policies: Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, UK; not to be confused with EU; also: European Commission, the executive body responsible for implementing European legislation of the European Union (EU); also: Electronic Commerce, business environment integrating electronic transfer and automated business systems.
ECAD—Electrical Computer Aided Design.
ECC—Error Checking and Correction; form of "self correcting" memory; see Error Detection and Correction; also: Elliptic Curve Cryptosystems; cryptosystems based on mathematical objects known as elliptic curves.
ECCB—Electronic Components Certification Board.
ECELAN—Hardware and software for VAX and PCs to provide file transfer over Ethernet at 10 Mbaud.
Echo—To reflect received data to sender, for example, keys depressed on keyboard are usually echoed as characters displayed on screen; as security check, transmitted message is repeated back to sender.
Echo Check, Echophlex—Method of checking accuracy of transmission of data in which received data are returned to sending end for comparison with original data.
ECISS—(European Committee for Iron and Steel Standardization).
ECL—Emitter Coupled Logic.
ECMA—(European Computer Manufacturers Association); currently called: European association for standardizing information and communication systems, this international European-based industry association is dedicated to world-wide standardization in information technology and telecommunications, often by coordinating efforts among different standards groups.
ECN—Engineering Change Notice.
ECO—Engineering Change Order.
ECR—Engineering Change Request.
eCRM—Electronic Customer Relationship Management; see CRM.
ECS—Enterprise Control System; see definition.
ECT—EDDL Cooperation Team; formed in 2003 by Fieldbus Foundation (FF), HART Communication Foundation (HCF) and Profibus Nutzer Organisation (PNO) to develop a common specification for graphical visualization and persistent data storage enabled by Electronic Device Description Language (EDDL); in 2004, OPC joined the cooperation team to develop a standard interface to the Unified Architecture [OPC UA].
EDA—Electronic Design Automation.
EDAC—(Electronic Design Automation Companies), Industry Association; also: Equipment Distribution And Condition; also: Error Detection And Correction, see definition.
EDC—Error Detection and Correction; form of "self correcting" memory; see definition.
EDD—Electronic Device Description; an International IEC Standard technology to provide openness to serve end-users as common operation for field devices, whether using HART Protocol, Foundation Fieldbus or PROFIBUS.
EDDL—Electronic Device Description Language; used as common method for describing parameters of field instruments using EDD technology.
Eddy Current—Current induced when conductor is subject to varying magnetic field; causes energy loss, usually as heat, and becomes significant in high frequency applications.
EDG—Electronic Dot Generation; method of producing halftones electronically on scanners.
EDGE—Enhanced Data rates for Global Evolution; enhancement to the GSM and TDMA wireless communications systems that increases data throughput to 384 Kbps.
EDI—Electronic Data Interchange; computer-to-computer exchange of structured transactional information between autonomous computers; traditional form of electronic exchange of trading documents (e.g. invoices and orders) to enable e-commerce; originally conducted only through value added networks, EDI is gradually moving to the internet.
EDIF—Electronic Design Interchange Format.
EDIFACT—Electronic Data Interchange for Administration Commerce and Traffic.
Editing Suite—In video development, collection of equipment for editing video.
Editor—In computing, software for changing, adding to, or deleting programs.
EDL—Edit Decision List in video development, text file created by editing application that describes all edits in piece; on-line editing system can read EDL and create finished piece, using original source tapes.
EDM—Engineering Data Management; controls access to on-line and archived engineering data; prevents unauthorized users from getting information and erroneously making changes that others don't know about; also: Electro-Discharge Machining.
EDORAM— Extended Data Output Dynamic Random Access Memory; type of DRAM faster than conventional DRAM; but which can only access one block of data at a time, EDO RAM can start fetching next block of memory at same time that it sends previous block to CPU.
EDP—Electronic Data Processor (ing).
EEA—(European Economic Area).
EE(P)ROM—Electronically Erasable (Programmable) Read Only Memory; device that can be erased electrically and reprogrammed; can be written upon selectively within active system on byte by byte basis, like RAM, but is also nonvolatile like ROM.
EEC—European Economic Community.
EECS—(Electrical Equipment Certification Service) British certification laboratory for testing equipment of different vendors to some common standard.
EEMS—Enhanced Expanded Memory Specification in PC's.
EEPLD—Electronically Erasable Programmable Logic Device.
EEPROM—Electrically Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory; a special type of PROM that can be erased by exposing it to an electrical charge.
EES—Enterprise Execution System; software packages to help reconcile top down business planning with bottom up production execution requirements for such functions as planning, production, and distribution issues; see MES, DES.
Effective Resistance—Alternating current resistance; measured as power in Watts dissipated as heat divided by current in Amperes squared; includes resistance to direct current and resistance due to eddy currents, hysteresis, and skin effect.
Effective Value—Root mean square value; virtual value.
EFL—Emitter Follower Logic.
EFT—Electrical Fast Transient; see definition.
EFTA—(European Free Trade Association); Austria, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland.
EFTS—Electronic Funds Transfer System.
EGA—Enhanced Graphics Adapter (Array); video standard (for IBM® PC in 1984); allows 16 out of possible 64 colors to be used; can emulate all modes of earlier CGA, adding 320 x 200, 640 x 200, and 640 x 350 pixels with 16 colors; see CGA, PGA, SVGA, UXGA, VGA, XGA.
EGPS, eGPS—Enhanced Global Positioning System; see definition.
EHS—Environmental, Health, and Safety.
EIA—(Electronics Industries Association); standards organization in U.S. specializing in electrical and functional characteristics of interface equipment (such as RS-series, now EIA-series); see TIA.
EIA 485—Specifies electrical characteristics of generators and receivers for use in balanced digital multipoint systems (ANSI/TIA/EIA-485-A-98); more discussion under RS-485.
EIA 1393A—User level format and protocol for bi-directional transfer of digitally encoded information in manufacturing environment.
EIA-SP 1907B—International building wiring standard which formalizes cabling practices, distances, installation practices, and media types.
EIAS—Electric-Image Animation System; Macintosh® based 3-D rendering and animation system.
EIB—Electronics Information Bulletin; also: Engineering Information Bulletin; also: Enterprise Information Base; also: Equipment Information Bulletin; also: European Installation Bus (home automation, see definition); also: Execute Interface Block (CICS) ; also: Export Image Bitmap.
EIDE―Enhanced IDE; in computers, extension to IDE interface that supports ATA-2 (Fast ATA) and ATAPI standards; also specifies a new BIOS for supporting hard disks greater than 504MB; see IDE, ATAPI.
Eight-Foot Long Yellow Pine 2x4—Used for levering very heavy equipment upward off of a trapped hydraulic jack handle; See Hydraulic Floor Jack J
EIS—Enterprise Information System, integrated computer database for all aspects of corporate business including process and materials management functions across many plant locations; also: Executive Information Software (System), same as above for plant-wide data, but sometimes terms are interchanged; also: Engineering Information System.
EISA—Extended Industry Standard Architecture; 32-bit adaptation of 8- and 16-bit buses originally developed by IBM® and now standard in almost all PCs using Intel® 8086, 80286, and 80386 microprocessors (jointly developed by several other PC manufacturers); allows more than one CPU to easily share the bus (multiprocessing).
Elastance—Reciprocal of capacitance.
Elastoresistance—Change in resistance of material when it is stressed within its elastic limit; concept used in design of some sensors.
EL, ELD—ElectroLuminescent Displays; see definition.
Electric Hand Drill—Normally used for spinning pop rivets in their holes until you die of old age. J
Electric Utility—Organization which owns, operates and maintains distribution and delivery of electricity to its customers for compensation, except where electricity is generated on or distributed by producer through private property solely for its own use or use of its tenants and not for sale or transmission to others.
Electrical Fast Transient (EFT)—Line disturbances caused by switching transients from nearby relays, motors and other switched devices; resulting burst surge causes interference to electrical and digital signals.
Electrical Noise—Unwanted electrical energy that has possibility of producing undesirable effects in the control, its circuits and system; includes Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) and Radio Frequency Interference (RFI); see Noise.
Electrical Noise Immunity—Extent to which control is protected from a stated electrical noise.
Electrode—Device that emits, collects, or deflects electric charge carriers; usually in form of solid plate, wire, or grid that controls current into and out of electrolyte, gas, vacuum, dielectric, or semiconductor; used in sensor technology.
ElectroLuminescent Displays (EL), (ELD)—Devices that emit phosphorous glow when exited with small voltage; only completely solid state type of liquid crystal displays (LCD) and typically come in two versions: Direct-current thick-film devices usually used as lamps behind LCDs, and Alternating-Current Thin-Film EL (ACTFEL) devices which are more suitable for high performance, high information content displays; most used in control systems are ACTFEL devices.
Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC)—Directive which took effect January 1, 1996 to ensure that no electronic system sold in any member country will generate sufficient electromagnetic field to disturb nearby systems, and also be immune from electromagnetic fields generated by other systems which comply to those same regulations; covers frequencies between 9 kHz and 1 Ghz; initially intended to control electromagnetic sensitivity of virtually all electric and electronic industry products from any EU member, or countries included in European Economic Area (EEA), to reduce non-tariff barriers to trade; does not mandate single law for all countries, but sets guidelines as result of which are open to interpretation.
Electromagnetic Interference (EMI)—Electromagnetic disturbance that manifests itself in performance degradation, malfunction, or failure of electronic equipment; unwanted "noise" created by current-producing devices such as electrical motors and fluorescent lights effecting quality of signals passing through data transmission medium.
Electromigration—Phenomenon in solid state microcircuits where atomic-scale hills and valleys grow in those thin metal conductors that carry electronic information; problem more acute with smaller, more densely packed chips; perhaps atoms moving around same way hammering, bending, or stretching malleable metal does, eventually causing conductors to melt.
Electron Beam Melting (EBM)—A 3D printing technique; see Additive Manufacturing.
Electronic Commerce (EC) —Business environment integrating electronic transfer and automated business systems.
Electronic Data Interchange (EDI)—Computer-to-computer exchange of structured transactional information between autonomous computers.
Electronic Marketplace—Type of e-commerce site that is central place on internet, which functions as meeting place for buyers and sellers of specific category of products; buyers and sellers can form interest groups to bundle their capacity; an electronic marketplace can be open or closed and has intermediary functions e.g. auctioning; usually electronic marketplaces have additionally a portal functionality as well; part of a market place are “member” buyer and seller sites.
Electronic Performance Support System (EPSS)—Computer applications designed to run simultaneously with other applications or embedded within other applications that provide support for the user in accomplishing specific tasks; may provide needed information, present job aids, and deliver just-in-time, context-sensitive training on demand; Web-Based Performance Support System (WBPSS) is an EPSS that uses Web technology to deliver support in an enterprise environment; see Web-Based Performance Support System.
Electronic Printing—Any technology that reproduces pages without use of traditional ink, water, or chemistry.
Electrophotography—Image transfer systems used in copiers to produce images using electrostatic forces.
Electro Static Discharge (ESD)—Transfer of charge between bodies at different electrical potentials; high levels of ESD may upset operation of an electronic system, causing equipment malfunction or failure.
Elementary—In Object Oriented Programming (OOP), consisting of a single object, not a compound.
Elevated Zero Range—In measuring systems, range in which zero value of measured variable, measured signal, etc., is greater than lower range-value; compare Suppressed-zero Range.
ELF—Extremely Low Frequency radiation in CRT-based video monitors; see VLF.
ELOT—Hellenic Organization for Standardization.
ELSI—Extra Large Scale Integration; integrated circuits containing more than one million components on a chip.
Em—In typographical composition of screen displays and printing, unit of measurement exactly as wide and high as point size of type font, so named because letter "m" in early fonts was usually cast on square body.
EMA—Enterprise Management Architecture; open network management system created by DEC®; also: Europe, Middle East, & Africa (markets), see EMEA.
EMACS—[pronounced: ee-maks]; Editing MACroS, or Extensible MACro System; popular screen editor for UNIX® and most other operating system; see GNU.
Embedded Control—Means almost whatever each definer states; most equate embedded with small, but a Eurocard 6U size CompactPCI or VME computer platform often classifies as embedded; also can imply dedicated purpose, that is, a control system specifically designed for one application
EMC—ElectroMagnetic Compatibility; see definition.
EMCL—Electronic Commerce Modeling Language; specification which provides a common way to build Web forms that contain credit card and shipping data on e-storefronts; also provides a standard format for storing that user information in a digital “wallet” on a PC so customers can drag data from desktops or third-party provider's Web site into merchants' e-forms, rather than re-keying it each time they place an order; has potential implications for DCS maintenance and troubleshooting.
EMCS—Electronic Measuring Control System.
EMD—Equilibrium Mode Distribution; steady modal state of multimode optical fiber in which relative power distribution among modes is independent of fiber length.
EMEA—Europe, Middle East, Africa; usually used in reference to markets; sometimes called EMA.
EMF—ElectroMagnetic Force of electricity, usually measured in Volts.
EMI—ElectroMagnetic Interference, see definition; also: Enterprise Manufacturing Intelligence; see definition.
Emissivity—In temperature measurement, ratio compared of energy emitted by an object to energy emitted by a blackbody at same temperature; emissivity of object depends upon its material and surface texture.
EMIT—Embedded Micro-Interface Technology; based upon Web server chips embedded within devices, allowing users to access and control those devices form anywhere else on that Web for remote functions.
EMMUA—(Engineering Equipment & Materials Users Association).
EMS—Element Management System, part of AT&T's UNMA; also: Energy Management System; also: Environmental Management System, which is implementation of plan for Environment, Health and Safety; also: Expanded Memory Specification in PCs by Microsoft®; also: Enterprise Messaging Server by Microsoft® for Windows™NT mail server.
EMOTICON—EMotional ICON; begun on Internet in e-mail, chatting, and posted messages, this (sometimes referred to as a "smiley") is a short sequence of keyboard letters and symbols, usually emulating a facial expression, expressing a feeling that supplements the message; most use several symbols to create small face with expression such as smile, wink, or turned-down mouth, which to read these you can either tilt your head or turn the monitor on its side :-); origin is claimed to Scott E. Fahlman in 1982, a research professor in computer science at Carnegie Mellon University trying to distinguish jokes from serious comments on school’s BBS; Japanese are using emoticons even more than Westerners, and because their PC keyboards handle the two-byte characters of Kanji, users can choose between single- and double-byte versions of certain characters such as underscore characters, allowing a further degree of expression \(^_^)/.
Emulation—Imitation of all or part of computer system, performed by combination of hardware and software, which allows programs to run between incompatible systems.
EN—Européen Norms (standards).
En—In typographical composition of screen displays and printing, one-half the width of an em.
Encapsulation—In Object Oriented Programming (OOP), inclusion of data structures and procedures in a single entity, and isolation (or hiding) of those workings, leaving interfaces clean and defined for modularity; this hiding or restricting access to functions within an object protects the one object from being corrupted by the object containing it; it also keeps the containing object form needing to know intimate details of the inner workings of the object within it.
Encoder—Device that converts linear or rotary displacement into digital or pulse signals.
Encoding/Decoding—Process of organizing information into format suitable for transmission, and then reconverting it after transmission.
ENDEC—ENcoder/DECoder; term used in disk industry for digital circuitry that performs manipulations similar to those video CODEC does for video signals in bits going to and from disk drive, see CODEC.
End Element—(also Final Device, Final Control Device); in process control, device which causes change in process, such as valve, motor drive unit, SCR, etc.
End Points—Limits of full scale calibration curve.
End User Interface—Device through which computer application program(s) and /or instrumentation & Measurement device(s) provide information to appropriate people; see also HMI, GUI.
Endothermic—Condition in process which absorbs heat.
Engineering Analysis System—Performs computer based analyses for evaluating CAD designs and models.
Enhanced Global Positioning System (EGPS) —Relies on a database of GSM/WCDMA base-station locations and a timing model of the network to generate fine time and frequency aiding to speed GPS fixes; can provide positional information based on cellular network data alone; see GPS.
ENIAC—Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer; reported to be first electronic computer, University of Pennsylvania, 1945, by John W. Mauchly and J. Presper Eckert Jr. after Mauchly had visited John V. Atanasoff in 1941 to examine his 1939 prototype electronic vacuum tube computer which was first to use binary system and could solve equations containing 29 variables; 30 tons of 18,000 vacuum tubes, 500,000 soldered joints, 70,000 resistors, & 10,000 capacitors; see UNIVAC.
ENQ—ENQuiry; digital transmission control character used as request for response from some remote station.
Enterprise Asset Management (EAM)—Plant management software solutions which are driving evolutionary process of elevating traditional Asset Management, and Computerized Maintenance Management Systems (CMMS) into corporate prominence; see those definitions.
Enterprise Control System (ECS)—Control System that looks at the entire operations of a process plant for the most effective operations of the business including full plant floor interoperation, full open communication access throughout the business enterprise, supports asset performance management (APM), and a single engineering environment across all plant floor domains.
Enterprise Management Architecture—Open network management system created by DEC®.
Enterprise Production Management (EPM)—Software solutions for the integration of ERP, supply chain, and manufacturing systems; see ERP.
Enterprise Manufacturing Intelligence (EMI)—Taking large amounts of manufacturing to develop real knowledge of the entire operation of a corporation to drive business results.
Enterprise Production System (EPS)—Space which ARC Advisory Group positions as integrating business and plant floor systems together for the good of the global enterprise; in ARC's Unified Enterprise Model, EPS differs from the older MES (Manufacturing Execution System) by being much more comprehensive in its scope, scalability, and functionality, and EPS is really more focused on production management and integration than older MES definitions.
Enterprise Project Portfolio Management (EPPM)—Practice of taking a more integrated and top-down approach to managing all project-intensive work and resources across the enterprise; contrasts with traditional approach of combining manual processes, desktop project tools, and ‘best-in-breed’ PPM applications for each project portfolio environment.
Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP)—Computer based corporate planning system defined by GartnerGroup, linked through Manufacturing Operations Management system to plant controls; counterpart to COMMS by Advanced Manufacturing Research (AMR); includes many sorts of applications targeting efficient management of all management resources e.g. human resources, materials, financial assets; ERP is focused on a single company, but recognizes resources all throughout the corporation (enterprise) worldwide.
Enthalpy—Sum of internal energy of a body and product of its volume multiplied by the pressure.
Entities—Design elements at lowest stage of complexity, such as lines or arcs, which are joined to make symbols or groups; see also Primitives.
Entity Approval—Intrinsically safe concept that specifies parameters which any approved intrinsic safety barrier must meet; this allows user to select barriers from different approved manufacturers; under entity approval two items may be interconnected if certain approved conditions are met; see Intrinsically Safe.
Environmental Conditions—All conditions which equipment may be exposed during shipping, storage, handling, and operation.
EOS—Economy of Scale.
EOTC—(European Organisation for Testing and Certification); European Organisation for Conformity Assessment, an independent and non-profit European body, was established in April 1990 by European Commission, European Free Trade Association (EFTA) and European Standards Bodies with 22 founder members and attained legal status under Belgian Law in April 1993.
EPA—Enhanced (Extended) Performance Architecture for MAP; also: (Environmental Protection Agency), primary agency responsible for enforcing U.S. federal environmental laws.
EPC; EP&C—Engineering, Procuring, and Construction; company which designs and builds process plant; formerly called A&E.
EPCM—Engineering, Procurement, Construction Management; also: Essential Procedures for Clinical Microbiology; also: Enhanced Planning Control Message; also: Enterprise Portal Content Management; also: European Project & Change Management (The Netherlands).
EPLD—Erasable Programmable Logic Device.
EPM—Enterprise Production Management; see definition.
EPOC—In wireless technology, 32-bit open operating system for handheld devices from Symbian Ltd. used in Psion and other handheld computers; supports Java applications, e-mail, fax, infrared exchange, data synchronization with PCs and includes suite of PIM and productivity applications.
EPP—Enhanced Parallel Port; digital communication which communicates in both directions.
EPPM—Enterprise Project Portfolio Management, see definition.
EPR—Ethylene Propylene (Copolymer) Resin.
EPRI—(Electric Power Research Institute); research consortium of 660 member utilities in U.S.
EPROM—Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory; digital storage device which can have contents modified by erasing with ultra-violet light and reprogramming; can be done repeatedly.
EPS—Encapsulated PostScript; format for saving bit mapped graphics in electronic memory, used for exchanging data between computers; also: Enterprise Production System, see definition.
EPSS—Electronic Performance Support System; see definition.
Equalization—Compensation for increase of attenuation with frequency; its purpose is to produce flat frequency response.
ERA—(ERA technology Ltd) British certification laboratory for testing equipment of different vendors to some common standard.
Ergonomics—Everything related to human physiology and psychology concerning design of physical environment to better suit the human condition.
EROM—Erasable Read Only Memory; entire memory can be erased with exposure to ultraviolet light so that new program can replace old.
ERP—Enterprise Resource Planning; see definition.
Error—Difference between value indicated through a sensor and measuring device, and true value of measurand being sensed; usually expressed in percent of full scale.
Error Band—Allowable deviations of output from specific reference norm; usually expressed as percentage of full scale; also: group of musicians with style inappropriate to the occasion. J
Error Control—Arrangement that detects presence of errors; in some systems, refinements are added that will correct detected errors, either by operations on the received data or by requested retransmission from the source.
Error Detection and Correction—Term sometimes used for Self-Correcting Memory (code, transmission); software which looks for specific rules of construction, detects expressions which do not conform, and substitutes an equivalent form.
Error Message—In computing, some terse, baffling remark used by programmers to place blame on users for shortcomings of program.J
ES—End System; one that implements all seven layers of OSI model; also: Electric Supply; also: Expert System.
ES-IS—End System to Intermediate System.
ESAC—Electrical Systems And Controls.
ESC—ESCape; Digital communication control character used to provide additional control functions, it alters meaning of limited number of continuously following bit combinations; usually to take control of computer away from a program, or to stop a program.
ESD—ElectroStatic Discharge, see definition; also: Emergency Shut Down, see Safety Instrumented System.
ESD/F&G—Emergency Shut Down/Fire & Gas.
ESD/PSD—Emergency Shut Down/Process Shut Down.
ESDI—Enhanced Storage Device Interface.
ES&H—Environmental, Safety, and Health.
ESI—Early Supplier Involvement
ESPRIT—(European Strategic Programme for Research and development in Information Technology).
ESR—Equivalent Series Resistance.
ESS—Electronic Switching System; also: Environmental Stress Screening, see definition.
ETH—Extra High Tension (high voltage).
EtherCAT—Ethernet Control Automation Technology; an Ethernet-based fieldbus system supported by consortium of over 140 users & suppliers.
Ethernet—Popular local area network design, invented by Robert Metcalfe of Xerox® Corporation in the mid-1970s, and used as standard by DEC® and Intel®; characterized by 10 Mbps baseband transmission over shielded coaxial cable and employing CSMA/CD as access control mechanism; standardized as specification IEEE 802.3; uses error detection procedures but no error correction, but unlike IEEE 802.3, has signal quality error/heartbeat signal from transceiver to node; allows audio & video information can be carried as well as computer data.
Ethernet 10Base2—Implementation of IEEE 802.3 standard known as thinnet; operates over thin coaxial cable at 10 Megabits per second baseband.
Ethernet 10Base5—Implementation of IEEE 802.3 standard known as standard Ethernet or thicknet; operates over thick coaxial cable at 10 Megabits per second baseband.
Ethernet 10BaseFL—Implementation of IEEE 802.3 standard designed to operate over fiber optic cable at 10 Megabits per second baseband.
Ethernet 10BaseT—Implementation of IEEE 802.3 standard designed to operate over Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) cable at 10 Megabits per second baseband.
ETPC—Electrolytic Tough-Pitch Copper.
ETSI—(European Telecommunications Standards Institute); non-profit organization whose mission is to produce telecommunications for Europe and beyond; based in Sophia Antipolis (France), ETSI unites 773 members from 52 countries inside and outside Europe, and represents administrations, network operators, manufacturers, service providers, research bodies and users.
EU—(European Union); Group of European countries banded together for common security and defense policies; includes countries of European Community (EC), but not to be confused with that organization; confusingly, however, EU legislation is implemented by that European Commission (another “EC”).
EUI—End User Interface, see definition.
EuroMAP—MAP option by ESPRIT, which includes special architectures for process industries, and Ethernet.
European Installation Bus—Digital communications control system for related applications in homes and buildings offering standardized basic and system components, e.g., Bus Coupling Units (BCU), Power Supply Units (PSU), Bus Interface Modules (BIM), Routers and RS-232 data interfaces; offers capability of constructing devices in modular form using system devices like BCU or BIM that support communications-specific functions; standardized interface called Physical External Interface (PEI) reduces expense of developing EIB devices and allows them to be exchanged; defined by EIA 776.5 for CEBus-EIB Router Communications Protocol.
EUSERC—(Electric Utility Service Equipment Requirements Committee); standard concerning electrical metering and service equipment that covers Western US, including Hawaii and Alaska.
EUT—Equipment Under Test.
Eutectic Temperature—Lowest possible melting point of a mixture of alloys.
Even Parity—A "dumb" terminal data verification method in which each character must have an even number of ON bits.
Event—In process control, change of status or condition of process loop, such as some threshold of modulating value is reached, some sequence step occurs, some discrete switch happens (manually or automatically), when point goes into or comes out of alarm condition; not always connected to a time frame, but serves to mark beginning and completion of activities or conditions, and to relate activities to one another; in process control systems, should be recorded in history, but discretion should be made on which are cause to notify operator; events can be used to trigger automatic actions in response.
Event Driven Programming—Ability of program to respond to events, rather follow traditional, sequential code.
EWI—Enterprise Wide Integration.
EWMA—Exponentially Weighted Moving Average, method of SQC/SPC suited for continuous process production.
EWOS—(European Workshop for Open Systems).
ExCA—Exchangeable Card Architecture; extension to PCMCIA specification added by Intel® to ensure PCMCIA card interoperability on host systems using Intel® CPUs.
Exception Reporting—In digital communication, media access protocol method whereby station in network containing particular item of information maintains "subscriber's list" of all other stations needing that information, so when that information changes by some specified amount, all those subscribers are then updated with this new data.
Excess loss—In fiber optic coupler, optical loss from that portion of light which does not emerge from nominally operational ports of the device.
Excitation—External application of electrical voltage/current applied to transducer or sensor for normal operation.
Executive Program—Program which controls execution of all other programs in computer, based on establishing hardware and software priorities and real time or demand requirements.
Exothermic—Condition in process that gives off heat.
Expanded Type—In typographical composition of screen displays and printing, type font whose width is greater than normal.
Expansion Factor—In pressure and flow measurement, correction factor for change in density between two measured areas in a constricted flow.
Expectifications—Vendor named category of control system specifications written by users & system consultants that form heroic or epic poetry favored by engineers which supply collection of impossible conditions with loopholes loosely held together by wistful verbiage; see also Dowatchados, Druthers, Gotchas, Ropushers, Smokescreens, Stickits, Stonecutters, Wannagirls. J
Expedite—To confound confusion with commotion. J
Expert—A self-publicist. J
Expert System—Computer program applying information, operational rules, and reasoning techniques derived from codified experience and advice of human experts to solve problems.
Explosion Proof Enclosure—Enclosure that can withstand an explosion of gasses within it and prevent explosion of gasses surrounding it due to sparks, flashes, or explosion of the container itself, and maintain an external temperature which will not ignite surrounding gasses.
Exposed Junction—Form of construction of thermocouple where measuring junction is fully exposed to process being measured, used for fastest response time if contamination is minimal.
Expression—In mathematics and computing, general term for numerals with signs of operation, variables, and combinations of these, such as 8, 9+4, n–12, etc.
Extension—In digital data file identification, abbreviated code at end of file which tells user what kind of information that file contains; for example, .BAT, .COM, .EXE contain applications, .TIF, .WMF, .EPS contain illustrations, .DOC, .TXT contain word files.
External Graphic—On Internet, digital graphic that must be downloaded from Web instead of being viewed directly from a Web page; see Inline Graphic.
External Trigger—In instrumentation, voltage pulse from external source that triggers some event such as happens in A/D conversion.
Extnd—Extended data transfer.
Extreme (Operating) Specifications—Environmental conditions over which equipment or system will operate, but may degrade performance and/or life span; see Operating and Storage.
Extranet—Closed use of Internet technology between selected business partners, e.g. to allow selected customers, suppliers and mobile workers to restricted access specific company digital network for private data and applications via the World-Wide Web; is in contrast to, and usually in addition to, that company’s public web site which is accessible to everyone; not protected by firewall as would be that company’s Intranet; see Intranet, Internet.
Extrinsic Loss—In optical fiber interconnection, that portion of loss that is not intrinsic to the fiber but is related to imperfect joining, which may be caused by connector or splice.
E-Z Out Bolt And Stud Extractor—Tool that is ten times harder than any known drill bit that snaps neatly off in bolt holes thereby ending any possible future use. J
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