JAOMAD Glossary I:
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Intro
I—Integral (reset) action in modulating process control, in which amount of change of correcting force is proportional to error signal; also: Input signal in analog, discrete, or digital form; also: means "Current"(electrical) when used in first alpha character position of an ISA instrument function tag, means "Indicate" in successive position [see ANSI/ISA S5.1-1984 (R1992)].
I/O—Input/Output; flow of data to and from some hardware or software function; in control systems, terminations between controllers and process for pneumatic, hydraulic, electrical signals in analog, discrete, or digital form.
IaaS—Infrastructure-as-a-Service; see definition.
IAE—Integral Absolute Error; performance criteria based on error during transient, sometimes used in precise tuning of automatic controllers and/or adaptive control strategies.
IBM—I Blame MicrosoftJ.
IBN—(Institut Belge de Normalisation); standards group in Belgium.
IC—Integrated Circuit; very small, complete circuit of interconnected semiconductor devices like transistors, capacitors, and resistors printed on single silicon chip.
ICA—Isotropically Conductive Adhesive.
ICAC—(Integrated Communications Advisory Committee); advises industry on development of open systems, interconnection protocols.
ICAM—Integrated Computer-Aided Manufacturing.
ICC—(International Color Consortium); formerly called ColorSync Profile Consortium, industry initiative led by Apple® to develop multi platform color matching among scanners, output devices, and displays; members include Agfa®, Eastman Kodak®, Microsoft®, Silicon Graphics,® and Sun Microsystems®; also: (International Codes Council); umbrella organization formed after much pressure from users to develop a single set of building codes for the US from the various (and conflicting) documents accepted on a regional basis by Building Officials and Code Administrators (BOCA), International Conference of Building Officials (ICBO) and Southern Building Code Congress International (SBCCI) also: ISDN Communication Controller; also: Intersite Communications Component; also: Internode Communications Channel (SMP); also: Internet Commerce Corporation; also: Interface Control Console; also: Integrated Control Center; also: Integrated Communications Controller; also: Integrated Circuit Chip; also: Installation Calibration Coordinator; also: Initial Connectivity Capability; also: Increased Cost of Compliance; also: Incoming Trunk Circuit (ANSI, ITU-T); and MANY others, though not as many as can be found for PC.
ICCP—Intercontrol Center Communications Protocol by EPRI, published mid 1994.
ICD—Industrial Computing Device.
Ice Point—Temperature at which pure water freezes (0°C or 32°F).
ICMP—Internet Control Message Protocol; TCP/IP process providing set of functions for networking layer management and control.
Icon—Graphic functional symbol display; graphic representation of function or functions to be performed by system.
ICR—Information Collection Rule; nationwide U.S. study designed to determine best long-term solution for giving public the healthiest water possible; also: Intelligent Character Recognition, Image Character Recognition; machine recognition of hand-printed characters as well as machine printing that is difficult to recognize.
ICS—Internet (Intranet) Control System; system where network connecting controllers with each other and HMI is an Internet or Intranet; also: Industrial Control System; also: International Classification for Standards; hierarchical classification which consists of three levels created by the ISO, International Organization for Standardization, which covers all standards which are not in the electrotechnical domain.
ID—Identification, see definition.
IDAPI—Integrated Database Application Programming Interface; open standard.
IDC—Insulation-Displacement Connector; see definition.
IDE―Integrated Drive Electronics; type of computer hardware interface widely used to connect hard disks, CD-ROMs and tape drives to a PC; controller electronics are built into the drive itself, requiring a simple circuit in the PC for connection; very popular because in 2000 is least expensive way to connect peripherals (starting out with 40MB capacities years ago, 4GB and 6GB IDE disk drives have become entry level, costing less than two cents per megabyte); also: Integrated Development Environment; produces application all on one software platform, which is very productive for the developer; for example, using Windows in high software content application leverages existing off-the-shelf software components to reduce product cost as well as other lifecycle costs such as maintenance and training; both NT and CE can provide this advantage to varying degree, though each operating system targets different types of applications and makes different feature versus size tradeoffs.
IDEC—Inter-utility Data Exchange Consortium/Committee of eastern U.S. utilities.
Identification (ID)—In instrumentation, sequence of letters, digits, or both which are used to designate an individual instrument or loop, sometime called "tag name;" also: in computer-based systems, unique name used to identify a User to the system.
IDL—Instrument Design Language; for batch processing.
IDP—Integrated Detector/Preamplifier; detector package containing pin photodiode and transimpedance amplifier.
IDS—Input Data Strobe; also: Intrusion Detection System; see definition.
IEC—Infused Emitter Coupling; also: (International Electrotechnical Commission), established in 1906 to facilitate coordination and unification of standards among member nations, focused on electrical and electronic products; in 1994 is composed of 44 national committees which collectively represent 80% of world's population that produces and consumes 95% of electricity.
IEC 617-12—Graphical symbols standard for diagrams, binary logic elements.
IEC 617-13—Graphical symbols standard for diagrams, analog elements.
IEC 848—Standard for preparation of function charts for control systems (SFCs).
IEC 61000-4-2 —Immunity Standard for Electrostatic Discharge (previously IEC 801-2).
IEC 61000-4-3 —Immunity Standard for Radiated Radio Frequency (previously IEC 801-3); EN Prestandard ENV50140.
IEC 61000-4-4 —Immunity Standard for Electrical Fast Transients (previously IEC 801-4).
IEC 61000-4-5 —Immunity Standard for Surge; EN Prestandard ENV50142.
IEC 61000-4-6 —Immunity Standard for Conducted Radio Frequency; EN Prestandard ENV50141.
IEC 61000-4-8,9,10,11 —Immunity Standards for Magnetic Field, Voltage Dips & Interruptions.
originally developed for Programmable controllers which addresses a consistent
programming environment by defining five standard languages;
IEC 61131-1 general information and guidelines
IEC 61131-2 equipment requirements and tests
IEC 61131-3 programming languages:
FBD – Function Block Diagrams
IL – Instruction List
LD – Ladder Diagrams
SFC – Sequential Function Charts
– Structured Text
IEC 61131-4 guidelines to integrate PLCs into automated systems
IEC 61499—Guidelines for use of standardized function blocks in distributed industrial process, measurement & control systems, filed devices, etc allowing common specific implementations to be available from different providers of field devices, controller hardware, human machine interfaces, communication networks, and so on:
IEC 61499-1 Architecture;
IEC 61499-2 Software tool requirements;
IEC 61499-3 Tutorial information; application guidelines;
IEC 61499-4 Rules for compliance profiles
IEC 61158—Emerging global fieldbus Standard based upon FOUNDATION Fieldbus version (ANSI/ISA SP50).
IEC 61804: Defines how to structure a control system to provide a common interface to fieldbus devices.
IEC-PAS—IEC-Publicly Available Specification.
IECEE—IEC System for Conformity Testing and Certification of Electrical Equipment.
IECEx—IEC Scheme for Certification to Standards for Electrical Equipment for Explosive Atmospheres.
IECQ—International Electronic Component Qualification system (IEC).
IED—Intelligent Electronic Device.
IEEE—(Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers); international professional society that issues its own standards and is member of ANSI and ISO.
IEEE 472—Electrical surge withstand test standard.
IEEE 488—Bus standard originally developed by Hewlett-Packard for laboratory instrumentation.
IEEE 754—Mathematical floating-point standard.
IEEE 802.2—Data-link layer (of ISO reference model) digital communication standard used with IEEE 802.3, IEEE 802.4, IEEE 802.5
IEEE 802.3—Ethernet LAN standard except for type field (10Mbps); physical-layer standard that uses CSMA/CD access method on bus-topology.
IEEE 802.4—Physical-layer standard using token bus topology LAN; nearly identical to MAP.
IEEE 802.5—Physical-layer standard using token ring topology LAN.
IEEE 802.6—Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) or High Speed Local network (HSLN) standard.
IEEE 802.11—Radio & wireless LAN.
IEEE 802.12—Draft standard for 100BASEVG
IEEE 1394—Called FireWire® by Apple Computer Inc. and iLINKTM by Sony Corporation, provides a high-speed, low-cost method to interconnect consumer electronics like digital AV products, PCs, and industrial applications. One of the largest growth areas is in digital home networks combining PCs and AV products with 1394 serving as the "Multimedia Bus."
IEEE-P1451—Draft standard for Smart Transducer Interface for Sensors and Actuators (fieldbus).
IEPS—(International Electronic Packaging Society).
IES—Integral Error Squared; performance criteria based on error during transient, sometimes used in precise tuning of automatic controllers and/or adaptive control strategies.
IETF—(Internet Engineering Task Force); large open international community of network designers, operators, vendors, and researchers concerned with evolution of Internet architecture and its smooth operation; open to any interested individual.
IFC—(International Fieldbus Consortium); made up of 46 members from major control and automation suppliers, users, and consultants worldwide; created in 1990 to show interconnectability among variety of field devices in process control and automation, based on SP50.
IFD—Intelligent Field Device; sensor, final element, or transmitter using microprocessor(s).
IFP—Intelligent Forms Processing; Using advanced techniques to scan documents and determine their data content. See ICR; also: Integer Factorization Problem; the difficulty of finding prime numbers in an encryption key; also: Intelligent Front Panel.
IGBT—Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor; used in ac drives to maintain even torque by keeping voltage/frequency ratio constant.
IGCC—Integrated Gasification Combined-Cycle; technology of electric power generation process that uses coal as a fuel while producing fewer air pollutants than conventional pulverized coal combustion by removing pollutants in coal fuel during gasification process, rather than by flue gas treatment after combustion.
IGES—Initial Graphic Exchange Specification; commonly used for translating data for other software.
IGFET—Insulated Gate Field Effect Transistor.
IGOSS—Industry & Government Open Systems Specification.
IGZO—Indium Gallium Zinc Oxide; material used to create a flexible Organic Light Emitting Diode display.
IIDC—Industrial Imaging Digital Camera.
IIL,I2L—Integrated Injection Logic.
IIR—Infinite Impulse Response filter; in digital signal processing (DSP), a filter the output of which is determined by its coefficients, current output, and previous inputs, characterized by its nonlinear phase response; see FIR.
IIS—Internet Information Server; see definition.
ILD—Injection Laser Diode; device that accepts electrical signals and converts energy to light signal; often light source for fiber optic transmission over longer distances (>1km).
iLINKTM —High speed, low cost computer network technology developed by Sony Corporation and now covered by IEEE 1394 which permits several electronic devices to communicate; made up of six individual cables - one for power, one for ground, two for data, and two for strobe, which synchronizes the data; assembly is shielded; also called Firewire® by Apple Computer.
Ill-behaved—In computing, program that is not well-behaved, typically bypasses the operating system or some other control program and accesses the hardware directly to improve performance.
IM—Intermodulation; also: Identity Management (information security); also: Implementation Model; also: Impulse Modulation; also: Industrial Manufacturing; also: Information Management; also: Inspection Manual; also: Installation & Maintenance; also: Installation Manual; also: Instant Messaging; also: Instruction Manual; also: Integration Management; also: Interface Module; also: Intermodulation Distortion; also: Inventory Management.
Image Maps—In context of Internet, portions of images that are hypertext links, allowing user to “mouse click” on different parts of mapped image to activate different hypertext links.
Image Processing—Techniques for filtering, storing, and retrieving images, and for processing pictorial information by computer.
Imagesetter—In computer imaging, device that outputs type, line art, and photos composed in position.
Imax—In context of intrinsic safety, maximum short circuit current permitted in a hazardous area in an intrinsically safe installation; see Intrinsically Safe.
IMC—Internal Model-based Control; alternative to PID approach for self regulating (non integral type) processes.
IMEI—International Mobile Equipment Identity; see definition.
IMES—Integrated Manufacturing Execution Systems.
IMF—International Monetary Fund.
Impedance—Combined total effect, usually in opposition, on transmitted signal flow from resistance, inductance, and capacitance.
IMS—Intelligent Manufacturing Systems; initiative proposed by Japan and now supported in Europe, North America, and Australia; to coordinate manufacturing research and development efforts among companies, universities, and research institutions.
In Point—In video development, first frame of clip; see Out Point.
In Situ—In the natural or original position; in process control applications generally refers to cleaning, treating or disposal methods which do not require removal of vessels or contaminated material.
INC—Intelligent Numeric Control; see definition.
Index of Refraction—(n) Ratio of velocity of light in free space to velocity of light in a given material.
Inductive Load—Electrical devices made of wound or coiled wire so that current passing through coil creates magnetic field that in turn produces mechanical work.
Industrial Hardened—Processing equipment installed to withstand effects of the manufacturing environment, including dirt, heat shock, and vibration, as well as insulating equipment from poor quality electrical power.
Industrial PC—Differ from consumer PCs in terms of reliability, compatibility, expansion options and share an underlying design philosophy of providing a controlled environment for the installed electronics to survive the rigors of the plant floor; typically characterized by being manufactured in lower volumes than home or office PC's and thus typically cost considerably more than comparable office style computers with similar performance; primarily used for process control and/or data acquisition often used as a front end to another control computer in a distributed processing environment; software can be custom written for a particular application or an off-the-shelf package used for a base level of programming.
Industry Standards & Technology Organization—Formed by IEEE, non-profit organization to provide greater options to industry for the development of new standards to meet the needs of industries with short product lifecycles such as telecommunications and information technology; this organization, which will maintain a close connection to IEEE's existing standards association, will provides such services as marketing, accreditation, certification, branding, and conformity assessment.
INERIS—(Institut National de L’Environnement Industrial et des Risques) French certification and testing laboratory for testing equipment of different vendors to some common standard.
INEX—Belgian certification and testing laboratory for testing equipment of different vendors to some common standard.
Infinite Capacity Scheduling—Loading plant or work center without regard to its capacity, to show points of overload so they can be corrected.
Information System (IS)—Computer network used to track performance of plant at close to real-time without excessive need for paper based systems; manages scope, validity, reliability, selection and maintenance of quality and performance data and information; additionally provides comparative information and benchmarks; data and information is then used to monitor and improve the integrated systems.
Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS)—Cloud computing model of service where basic computing infrastructure of servers, software, & network equipment and data storage is from an outside provider as on-demand service upon which a platform to develop and execute applications can be established; main purpose is to avoid purchasing, housing, and managing basic hardware and software infrastructure components, & instead obtain those resources as virtualized objects controllable via a service interface; security provisions beyond basic infrastructure are carried out mainly by cloud consumer; compare: Platform-as-a-Service, Software-as-a-Service.
Infrared Thermometer—Thermometer that measures emitted infrared radiation (heat) to determine temperature of an object which generally not suitable for contact measurement.
Inheritance—In object oriented software, mechanism where, if a new object is defined based upon an object class, it inherits all the methods and variable definitions of the class from which it came; this can include the creation of a subclass.
INIEX—Belgian certification and testing laboratory for testing equipment of different vendors to some common standard.
Initialization—Beginning of an operation; within function blocks of cascaded PID loops inside microprocessor controller, this is the automatic balancing of signals so that transfer of a loop from manual, automatic, or computer mode to cascade mode will not disturb the process; also: within token passing type data highway, the restarting of the token, usually to revisit every potential address to find and include any new station which may have been physically added.
INL—Integral Non-Linearity; see definition.
Inline Graphic—Digital graphic that can be displayed directly on Internet Web page; see External Graphic.
INMS—Integrated Network Management System, part of AT&T's UNMA.
Input Bias Curent—Electrical current that flows into circuit inputs.
Input Impedance—Impedance measured across input terminals of device due to circuitry within that device.
Input Isolated Transmitters―Type 2 or type 3 analog (4-20mA) transmitters used in a grounded circuit.
Input offset Current—Difference in electrical input bias current of two inputs of instrumentation amplifier.
Input/Output—Transfer of of signals and/or data to and from any device; with computer information, input is entered through keyboard as intelligible data and output comes to printer as unrecognizable junk. J
Input/Output (I/O) Subsystem Interface—In FOUNDATION Fieldbus technology, device used to connect other types of communications protocols to fieldbus Segment(s).
Input Signal—Signal applied to specific device, element, or system, usually representing value or status of process as read by some sensor.
Insertion Point—In computer screens, place where text will be inserted when typing, usually identified with flashing vertical line (cursor) and appears to left of insertion point and pushed to right as text is entered.
Insertion Loss—Loss of power that results from inserting component such as connector or splice, into some previously continuous electrical path.
Installation Qualification—In process validation, documented verification that all key aspects of hardware installation adhere to appropriate codes and approved design intentions, and that recommendations of manufacturer have been suitably considered.
Installed Flow—True performance of valve or flowmeter when it forms part of actual processing line.
InstallShield®—Popular install program from InstallShield Software Corporation, Schaumburg, IL, (www.installshield.com); versions are available for the Windows, Alpha and Java platforms as well as for Internet distribution.
Instance—In computer technology, single copy of running program; multiple instances of program means that program has been loaded into memory several times; also: in Object Oriented Programming (OOP), definition of specific object according to its class and individual characteristics.
Instantaneous Contacts—Output contacts that transfer when timer begins timing.
Instantiate—In object technology, to create an object of a specific class; see also Instance.
International Mobile Equipment Identity (IMEI)—Unique number given to every mobile phone; used to deactivate a phone if it is stolen.
Interim Release—Computer programmer's feeble attempt at repentance.J
Instruction List—Low level language of programmable controllers similar to assembler language in which only one operation, such as storing a value in a register, is allowed per line; useful for smaller applications or for optimizing parts of an application; one of five languages accepted under IEC 1131 standard for PLCs; see Function Block Diagram, Ladder Logic, Structured Text, and SFC.
Instructional Systems Design (ISD)—Formal process for designing training, be it computer-based or traditional instructor-led training; design process, as applied to computer & web-based training, suggests comprehensive needs analysis, user analysis, design document (including flowcharts, storyboards, and evaluation procedures), application prototype, finished computer application, usability testing, and effectiveness evaluation.
Instrument—Term for any item of pneumatic, electromechanical, electrical or electronic equipment designed to carry out specific function or set of functions; usually measures value of an observable attribute, and may also control the value.
Instrumentation—Systems of instruments used to observe and control a process or plant.
Insulating Barrier—Barrier of non-conductive material within an enclosure, compartment, for electrical equipment that effectively prevents electrical energy within conductors or bus bars from accidentally contacting ground or neutral or contacting phase to phase in an uncontrolled manner.
Insulation Displacement Connector (IDC)—Plastic connectors can be used to connect two different diameter wires (such as a 14ga bus and a 20ga feeder) together without the need for soldering; sometimes called suitcase connector due to how it functions.
Insulation Resistance—Resistance value for the cover material of an electrical conductor, expressed in Ohms.
Integral Action—(Reset) process control action that changes proportional control depending upon time deviation from set point, thereby eliminating droop (offset) in the system.
Integral Non-Linearity (INL)—Measure inleast significant digital bit of worst-case deviation from the ideal A/D or D/A transfer characteristic of analog I/O circuitry.
Integrate—Seamless data exchange without translator; to bring separate parts together to make a whole.
Integrated Circuit—Small, complete circuit of interconnected semiconductor devices such as transistors, capacitors, and resistors printed in a single silicon chip.
Integrated Software—Single product that deftly performs hundreds of functions that the user never needs and awkwardly performs the half-dozen he uses constantly. J
Integrated Turbine Compressor (ITC) Controls—Include Driver Control (i.e., steam turbine, gas turbine, electric motor, reciprocating or diesel engine), Anti-Surge Control of the Compressor, Compressor Suction or Discharge Pressure Control, Compressor Load Sharing Schemes, Plant Process Control (steam header or process header).
Integrated Turbine Generator (ITG) Controls— Include Driver Control (i.e., steam turbine, gas turbine, Hydroturbine, reciprocating or diesel engine); Automatic Synchronizing, Automatic Voltage Control, Generator Excitation Control, Megawatt, MegaVar, Power Factor Control, Load Sharing Schemes, Import/Export Power.
Integrating ADC—Analog-to-Digital Converter that works by integrating unknown voltage over time; time required is compared to time required to integrate a known reference voltage.
Integration—State in which all aspects of system or plant-wide operations are tied together in continuous loop of function and information; generally data can be fed into and retrieved from integrated system from anywhere in system or plant.
Integrator—Device which continually totalizes or adds up the value of a quantity for a given time.
Intellectual Property—Broad category of materials that are legally recognized as proprietary assets of an organization; In the computer field, hardware circuits, software and text are copyrightable; depending on situation, algorithms used within hardware circuits and software may also be patentable, and brand names can be trademarked as long as they are not generic descriptions of the products; covers more than just copyrights, patents and trademarks; for example, customer databases, mailing lists, trade secrets and other business information are also included; usually in reference to reusable knowledge encapsulated within some chip-based component like System-On Chip.
Intelligent Field Devices—Microprocessor-based devices capable of providing multiple process variables, device performance information, diagnostic results, and execution of assigned control functions.
Intelligent Hub—See Smart Hub, Hub.
Intelligent I/O Modules—I/O module that provides intelligent, on-board processing of input values to control output values, bypassing controller for routine decision making.
Intelligent Numeric Control (INC)—Next advance from CNC; open architecture numerical control for manufacturing that uses off-the-shelf components; control can be upgraded and modified to incorporate new technology once it’s installed on the factory floor.
Intelligent Terminal—Programmable terminal; sometimes called Intelligent Workstation, any terminal that can provide user with independent processing power and applications support, without need of central computer; example: personal computers.
Inter-Repeater Link—In data communications, electronically continuous piece of bus consisting of same cable with only two devices in point-to-point configuration, also called Link Segment.
Interactive Processing—In data processing, describing time-dependent (real-time) data handling or communications; user enters data and then awaits response from destination before continuing; conversational rather than batch processing.
interactive TV (iTV)—Two-way communications between TV viewer and service provider; fusion of video and computer technology, running video program and computer program in tandem under control of user; with interactive video, user's actions, choices, and decisions genuinely affect how program unfolds; although various experiments have taken place throughout the 1980s, interactive TV has yet to take off by the turn of the century; closest on widescale basis is pay TV, which dedicates entire channel to same movie so that viewer can begin to watch it with reasonably short notice; beyond video reception, allows viewer to respond due to multichannel availability of media such fiber optic cable; has industrial implications similar to videoconferencing.
InterBus-S—High speed proprietary "fieldbus" by Phoenix Contacts® for sensors and actuators; InterBus-S Club was formed in Europe in 1993 to maintain and advance this as a standard, assist development of sensor/actuator products, and work with NEMA/IEEE organizations for Unified Sensor/Actuator Standard.
Interchangeability—In reference to fieldbus, ability of vendor's product to be fully replaceable to similar product by another vendor; functions must be identical, but may not always include extensions beyond standard specifications, for example, some features may differ, such as self tuning technique of PID function block while PID function itself remains identical. Compare with Interoperability.
Interchangeability Error—Measurement error that can occur if two or more sensors are used to make same measurement; caused by slight variation in characteristics of those sensors.
Interface—Shared boundary defined by common physical interconnection characteristics, signal characteristics, and meanings of interchanged signals; device or software making possible inter-operation between two different functions/systems, or between function/system and human.
Interim Release—In computer technology, programmer's feeble attempt ar repentance.
Interlaced—In video development, the alternating of horizontal scan lines, such as in NTSC signal which delivers 30 frames per second of 525 lines, odd set is displayed in the first 1/60th second, even set in the second 1/60th second in each frame.
Interleave—In data communication, to send blocks of data alternately to two or more stations on multipoint system, or to put bits or characters alternately into time slots of Time Division Multiplexor; also: on video screen, to alternate raster scan lines to transmit higher resolution frames per second.
Interlock—Physical device, equipment, or software routine that prevents operation from beginning or changing function until some condition or set of conditions are fulfilled.
Internal Model-based Control—Alternative to PID approach for self regulating (non integral type) processes.
Internet™—Digital communications network that interconnects many other networks; literally a "network of networks," global wide area hypermedia information retrieval initiative aiming to give universal access to large universe of documents, using hypertext as its means of interacting with commercial users; although based on HTTP, is not the entire internet (for example there are also FTP & SMTP systems); see Extranet, Intranet.
Internet Information Server (IIS) - Web server software from Microsoft that runs under Windows NT; supports Netscape's SSL security protocol and turns an NT-based PC into web site; Microsoft's web browser, Internet Explorer, is also included.
Internet Protocol—Communications protocol used in gateways connecting networks at OSI network layer 3 of the public Internet, many wide area networks (WANs) and most local area networks (LANs); is part of the TCP/IP protocol suite, and the terms "IP network" and "TCP/IP network" are synonymous.
internet TV (iTV)—began in 1996 with WebTV& specialized for viewing on interlaced TV screen rather than computer monitor, is latest attempt at interaction between home user and the provider; Internet's momentum with its vast amounts of information and interaction available, perhaps TV may succeed where interactive TV did not.
Interoperability—In computers, ability of computing systems to share application software, typically to function together over a network; also: in reference to fieldbus, ability of products from different vendors to coexist on same network, and send, receive, interpret messages, responding correctly to their instructions, to even allow cascaded control functions to occur between devices; they share same application software. Compare with Interchangeability.
Interpreter—Computer system program that converts and executes each instruction of a high-level language (user written) program into machine code as it runs, before going on to next instruction.
Interrupt—To stop a process in such a way that it can be resumed; also: computer signal indicating that CPU should suspend its current task to service some designated activity.
Interrupting Rating—Highest current at rated voltage that a device is intended to interrupt under standard test conditions.
Interval Timer—Timer that has its output occur during timing state.
Intranet—Digital communication infrastructure within a company, based on Internet technology which is a closed firewall protected system devised so that only a limited number of people have access, such as employees and field salesmen of a company who wish to exchange, and have the ability to reference information world-wide, but do not wish that access to be available to their competitors, customers, or other outsiders; unlike Extranet, is not accessed through a company’s public website on Intranet; see Extranet, Internet
Intrinsic Safety (IS)—Method to provide safe operation of electric process control instrumentation where hazardous atmospheres exist; this method keeps electrical or thermal energy so low that ignition of hazardous atmosphere cannot occur.
Intrinsic Safety Barrier—Device inserted in an electric wire route between process control instrumentation and point where wire passes into hazardous area; it limits voltage and current on the wire to safe levels; often many barriers are mounted together on some barrier panel or in common enclosure.
Intrinsically Safe—Equipment and wiring which is incapable of releasing sufficient electrical or thermal energy under normal or abnormal conditions to cause ignition of a specific hazardous atmospheric mixture in its most easily ignited concentration, according to ISA-RP12.6; achieved by limiting the amount of power available to electrical equipment in hazardous areas to levels below that which will ignite gasses or vapors, combustible dusts, or ignitable fibers or flyings; equipment must have been tested and approved by an independent agency to assure its safety; products to be mounted in hazardous areas can be approved either under Loop or Entity approval concept.
Intrusion Detection System—Cyber security method that monitors packets on the network wire and attempts to discover if a hacker/cracker is attempting to break into a system (or cause a denial of service attack); fundamentally designed to detect an intrusion that has already happened vs Intrusion Prevention System (IPS) is designed to prevent the intrusion from succeeding.
Intrusion Prevention System (IPS)—Network cyber security device that sits inline on the work, uses stateful inspection (sometimes called dynamic packet filtering, a firewall architecture) to analyze packet content, and blocks certain packets that match a signature and alerting on others; designed to prevent the intrusion from succeeding vs. Intrusion Detection System (IDS) designed to detect an intrusion that has already happened.
Inventory Management—Systematic determination of items and quantities to be ordered, coordination of order release and order due dates, changes in required quantities, and rescheduling of planned orders.
Inventory Turnover—Number of times that an inventory cycles during a year.
IOS—Input/Output Subsystem, usually digital real-time network of software, hardware, protocol and diagnostics to manage process I/O with solid integrity; also: (International Organization for Standards); see ISO.
I/P—Current to Pneumatic conversion.
IP—Internet Protocol, see definition; also: Intellectual Property, see definition.
IPv4—Internet Protocol Version 4; current version of the IP protocol.
IPv5—Experimental streaming audio/video protocol, which had nothing to do with the fundamental structure of IP addressing.
IPv6—Internet Protocol Version 6; next generation IP (IPng) protocol specification started in 1991, completed in 1997, officially deployed in July 2004 by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF); is backward compatible with and is designed to fix the shortcomings of IPv4, such as data security and maximum number of user addresses
Protection codes; IEC enclosure classes approx. equivalent to NEMA
ratings: IP10 = NEMA 1, IP11 = NEMA 2, IP14/54 = NEMA 3/13, IP52 = NEMA 5/12,
IP56 = NEMA 4, IP67 = NEMA 7:
IP00 = no protection from solid bodies or liquids;
First digit is protection from solid bodies:
0 = none
1 = objects > 50mm
2 = objects > 12mm
3 = objects > 2.5mm
4 = objects > 1.0mm
5 = dust protected
6 = dust-tight
Second digit is protection from liquids:
0 = none
1 = vertically dripping water
2 = angled dripping water (-75° to 90°)
3 = sprayed water
4 = splashed water
5 = water jets
6 = heavy seas
7 = effects of immersion
8 = indefinite immersion
IP Spoofing—In computer networks, technique used to gain unauthorized access to computers, whereby intruder sends messages to computer with some IP address indicating that intruding message is coming from a trusted port; to engage in IP spoofing, a cracker must first use a variety of techniques to find an IP address of a trusted port and then modify the packet headers so that it appears that the packets are coming from that port; newer routers and firewall arrangements can offer protection against IP spoofing; see Firewall Technology, Cracker, Hacker.
IP Tunneling—Carrying a protocol from another networking system within an IP packet; for example, transmitting NetWare IPX packets within IP; see Tunneling.
IPC—InterProcess Communication, from system V UNIX®; also: (Institute for Interconnecting and Packaging Electronic Circuits); also: Industrial PC, see definition.
IPDS—Intelligent Printer Data Stream; page description printer protocol that allows complete page of text and graphics to be formatted and stored in printer's memory.
IPI—Intelligent Peripheral Interface.
IPM—Inches per Minute; also: Interior Permanent Magnet motor.
IPMCS—Industrial Process Measurement and Control Systems.
IPM(S)—Inter-Personal Messaging (System); first application for MHS, uses P2 format of X.400.
IPO—Integrated Production Operations.
IPQ—(Instituto Português da Qualidade); standards group in Portugal.
IPS—Intrusion Prevention System; see definition.
IPSec—IP SECurity; in digital communications, security protocol from IETF that provides authentication of sender and encrypts all network traffic, and once entry is gained it is potentially possible to have access to entire network (though still limited by security policies defined in firewalls and access control lists); unlike SSL, which provides services at layer 4 and secures two applications, IPSec works at layer 3 and secures everything in the network; supported by IPversion6 and designed for the IP protocol, it has wide industry support and is expected to become the standard for virtual private networks (VPNs) on the Internet; compare SSL.
IPTS—International Practical Temperature Scale, providing fixed points in thermometry as specified by General Conference of Weights and Measures.
IPX—Internetwork Packet Exchange; operating system by Novell, Inc.
IR—InfraRed; area in electromagnetic spectrum extending beyond red light from 760 nanometers to 1000 microns (106 nm); form of radiation used for making non-contact temperature measurements; it is also signal range for some fiber optic communications systems.
IRC—Internet Relay Chat; is used for real time conversations over Internet.
IRDS—Information Resource Dictionary System; emerging U.S. government backed ANSI standard.
IRL—Inter-Repeater Link; in data communications, electronically continuous piece of bus consisting of same cable with only two devices in point-to-point configuration, also called Link Segment.
IRQ—Interrupt ReQuest; prioritized demand for attention from a microprocessor.
IRS—Information Retrieval Services; also: (Institutl Român de Standardizare); standards group in Romania.
IS—International Standard (by ISO); also: Information Systems, see definition; also: Intrinsic Safety, see definition.
ISA—(originally: Instrument Society of America); organization now formally known as "ISA, The Instrumentation, Systems, and Automation Society," started in1945 in U.S. which is made up of individual volunteers from all aspects of the instrumentation business, representing vendors and users, many types of industries, and nearly every job description; they traditionally provide education and develop international consensus standards and practices; also: Industry Standard Architecture, a de facto personal computer 24-bit bus standard used in IBM®PCs and compatibles; developed for extension cards in the first IBM PC, it originally supported only 8-bit wide data path (now called PC/XT bus); subsequently developed to 16-bit for the AT class computers, and called AT bus, supporting both 8- and 16-bit cards.
ISAPI - Internet Server API; computer programming interface on Microsoft's Internet Information Server (IIS) which has function calls so web pages can invoke programs that are written as DLLs on server, typically to access data in a database; comes with a DLL that allows embedded queries to access ODBC-compliant databases and is alternative to using CGI scripts on Microsoft Web servers; see counterpart on client side WinInet.
Isc—In context of intrinsic safety, maximum short circuit current from barrier protecting a hazardous area in an intrinsically safe installation. area; see Intrinsically Safe.
ISD—Instructional Systems Design; see definition.
ISDN—Integrated Services Digital Network; standard for high speed digital transmission of voice, video, and data via standard telephone lines; works under X.25; requires electronic (digital) telephone switching offices; computers with ISDN card do not need modem, run 10 times faster; also: It Still Does Nothing J.
ISFET—Ion Sensitive Field Effect Transistor.
ISHM—(International Society for Hybrid Microelectronics).
Island of Automation—Stand-alone pocket of automation, such as a robot, CAD/CAM system, CNC machine, or process control system that is not connected into a cohesive overall system.
ISO—(International Standards Organization); international organization for promoting the development of standards for computers.
ISO 9000—International Standards Organization standards for quality systems, primarily states that manufacturer has developed a standard for quality, and consistently builds their products to their own standards.
Isochronous—Equally timed; in data communications, timing information is transmitted on channel along with data, sending asynchronous data by synchronous means; method involves synchronously sending asynchronous characters between each pair of start and stop bits.
Isolation—Reduced capacity of device or system to respond to (usually unwanted) external forces by use of resilient isolating materials.
Isolating Barrier—Partition of either conductive or nonconductive material used to mechanically isolate electrically energized equipment from outside elements and/or to mechanically isolate compartments or sections from other integral sections or compartments of the enclosure.
Isolation Voltage—Electrical voltage an isolated circuit can normally withstand, usually specified from input to input and/or from any input to amplifier output, or to computer bus.
Isometric View—Drawing in which horizontal lines of object are drawn at angle to horizontal, and all verticals are projected at angle from base.
Isomorphic Representation—Representation in which there is one-to-one correspondence between scene and its representation.
ISORM—ISO Reference Model.
Isothermal—Process or area that is at constant temperature.
ISP—(InterOperable Systems™ Project); group of companies formed in October, 1992, and committed to accelerating availability of products and systems using a standard international fieldbus; based on work of IEC and ISA as well as other well known fieldbus technologies; Fieldbus Foundation, a not-for-profit organization dedicated to developing single, worldwide, interoperable fieldbus... formed from merger of WorldFIP North America and ISP Foundation in 1994; also: Internet Services Provider, business that allows companies and individuals to connect to Internet by providing interface to Internet backbone (e.g. AOL, T-Online).
ISTO—(Industry Standards & Technology Organization) formed by IEEE; see explanation under full name.
ISV—Independent Software Vendors; often used to describe a software company's partnering organizations that develop complimentary software solutions that integrate or work together with the first company's solutions..
IT—Information Technology; current methods and computer-based techniques for gathering and analyzing business information from manufacturing and process plant operating parameters, and plant control parameters from business requirements.
ITA—Industry Technical Agreement; IEC term.
ITAE—Integral Time Absolute Error; performance criteria based on error during a transient sometimes used in precise tuning of automatic controllers and/or adaptive control strategies.
Italic—In typographical composition of screen displays and printing, the style of letters that slant, in distinction from upright, or roman, letters; generally used for emphasis within text.
ITB—InTermediate Block character; digital transmission control character that terminates an intermediate block, a Block Check Character usually follows; use of ITBs allows for error checking of smaller transmission blocks.
ITC—(International Trade Commission); also: Integrated Turbine Compressor (control), see definition.
ITG—Integrated Turbine Generator (control), see definition.
ITI—(Industrial Technology Institute).
ITO—Indium Tin Oxide; coating used on transparent metal substrates of resistive & capacitive type membrane used to produce flat-panel liquid-crystal displays (FPDs) and some touchscreen and digital pen technologies..
ITM—(Inspection du Travail et des Mines); standards group in Luxembourg.
ITN—Information Technology Network.
ITRC—(Information Technology Requirements Council); formed in 1988 to promote consensus, integration, and coordination of requirements across the entire range of information technologies by establishing and funding requirements groups, such as "North American MAP/TOP Users' group."
ITU-TSS—(International Telegraphic Union-Telecommunications Standards Sector); coordinates standards for telecommunications on behalf of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) and is based in Geneva, Switzerland, dating back to 1865 with the birth of the International Telegraph Union; replacement organization for CCITT.
iTV—Interactive TeleVision, see definition; also: Internet TeleVision, see definition.
ITVA—(International TeleVision Association).
IVDS—Interactive Video Data Service; system where user both enters and receives information through a television set normally used for receiving entertainment programs; user can change camera angles, alter story endings, etc.; potential for control room functions.
IXC—Inter eXchange Carrier, telephone service which connects Local Exchange Carriers for long distance communication, compare LEC.
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